Accounting & Investement Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

Cabinet Crowd   Dico Tools
NYSE members who trade bonds with a low daily traded volume. See: Automated Bond System.

Cabinet Security   Dico Tools
A stock or bond listed on a major exchange with low daily traded volume.

CAC 40 Index   Dico Tools
A broad-based index of common stocks composed of 40 of the 100 largest companies listed on the forward segment of the official list of the Paris Bourse.

Calendar Effect   Dico Tools
Describes the tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including preformance anomalies like the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect.

Calendar Spread   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. A strategy in which there is a simultaneous purchase and sale of options of the same class at different strike prices, but with the same expiration date.

Calendar Year   Dico Tools
An entity's reporting year, covering 12 months and ending on December 31.

Call An Option   Dico Tools
To exercise a call option.

Call Date   Dico Tools
A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond for a specified call price.

Call Feature   Dico Tools
Part of the indenture agreement between the bond issuer and buyer describing the schedule and price of redemptions prior to maturity.

Call Loan   Dico Tools
A loan repayable on demand. Sometimes used as a synonym for broker loan or broker overnight loan.

Call Loan Rate   Dico Tools
See: Call money rate

Call Money Rate   Dico Tools
Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rateplus a service charge.

Call Option   Dico Tools
An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the contract.

Call Premium   Dico Tools
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.

Call Price   Dico Tools
The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a specified call date.

Call Protection   Dico Tools
A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be called.

Call Provision   Dico Tools
An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of an issue prior to maturity.

Call Risk   Dico Tools
The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.

Call Swaption   Dico Tools
A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating-rate payer.

Callable Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds for which the issuer reserves the right to pay the obligation before its maturity date.

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Called Away   Dico Tools
Convertible: Redeemed before maturity.

CAMPS   Dico Tools
See: Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks

Can Get $xxx   Dico Tools
Refers to over-the-counter trading. "I have a buyer who will pay $xxx for the stock". Uusually a standard markdown (1/8) from $xxx is applied to this price in bidding the seller for its stock. Antithesis of cost me.

Canadian Agencies   Dico Tools
Agency banks established by Canadian Banks in the U.S.

Canadian Dealing Network   Dico Tools
The organized OTC market of Canada. Formerly known as the Canadian Over-the-Counter Automated Trading System (COATS), the CDN became a subsidiary of the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1991.

Canadian Exchange Group   Dico Tools
The CEG is an association among the Toronto Stock Exchange, the Montreal Exchange, the Vancouver Stock Exchange, the Alberta Stock Exchange, and the Winnipeg Stock Exchange for the purpose of providing Canadian market data to customers outside Canada.

Cancelled Check   Dico Tools
 A check that has been stamped to show it has been paid.

Cannot Compete   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, cannot accommodate customers at that price level (i.e., compete with other market makers), often because there is no natural opposite side of the trade.

Cannot Complete   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, inability to finish an order on a principal or agency basis, given prevailing price instructions and/or market conditions.

Capital   Dico Tools
The total amount of money or other resources owned or used to acquire future income or benefits.  

Capital Account   Dico Tools
An account in which a proprietor's or partner's interest in a firm is recorded; it is increased by owner investments and net income and decreased by withdrawals and net losses.

Capital Allocation Decision   Dico Tools
Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets and the risky portfolio.

Capital Asset   Dico Tools
A long-term asset, such as land or a building, not purchased or sold in the normal course of business.

Capital Asset Pricing Model   Dico Tools
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium multiplied by the assets systematic risk. Theory was invented by William Sharpe (1964) and John Lintner (1965).

Capital Budget   Dico Tools
A firm's planned capital expenditures.

Capital Budgeting   Dico Tools
The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.

Capital Builder Account   Dico Tools
A Merrill Lynch brokerage account that allows investors to access the loan value of his or her eligible securities to buy or sell securities. Excess cash in a CBA can be invested in a money market fund or an insured money market deposit account without losing access to the money.

Capital Expenditure   Dico Tools
An expenditure that is recorded as an asset because it is expected to benefit more than the current period.

Capital Expenditures   Dico Tools
Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as property, plant, or equipment.

Capital Flight   Dico Tools
The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.

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Capital Formation   Dico Tools
Expansion of capital or capital goods through savings, which leads to economic growth.

Capital Gain   Dico Tools
The excess of the selling price over the cost basis when assets, such as securities and other personal and investment assets, are sold.

Capital Gains Distribution   Dico Tools
A distribution to the shareholders of a mutual fund out of profits from selling stocks or bonds, that is subject to capital gains taxes for the shareholders.

Capital Gains Tax   Dico Tools
The tax levied on profits from the sale of capital assets. A long-term capital gain, which is achieved once an asset is held for at least 12 months, is taxed at a maximum rate of 20% (taxpayers in 28% tax bracket) and 10% (taxpayers in 15% tax bracket). Assets held for less than 12 months are taxed at regular income tax levels, and, since January 1, 2000, assets held for at least five years are taxed at 18% and 8%.

Capital Gains Yield   Dico Tools
The price change portion of a stock's return.

Capital Goods   Dico Tools
Goods used by firms to produce other goods, e.g., office buildings, machinery, equipment.

Capital International Indexes   Dico Tools
Market indexes maintained by Morgan Stanleythat track major stock markets worldwide.

Capital Investment   Dico Tools
See: Capital expenditure.

Capital Lease   Dico Tools
A leasing transaction that is recorded as a purchase by the lessee.

Capital Loss   Dico Tools
A negative difference between an asset’s price when bought and its price when or if sold; the opposite of capital gain.

Capital Market   Dico Tools
The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).

Capital Market Efficiency   Dico Tools
The degree to which the precent asset price accurately reflects current information in the market place. See: Efficient market hypothesis.

Capital Market Imperfections View   Dico Tools
The view that issuing debt is generally valuable, but that the firm's optimal choice of capital structure involves various other views of capital structure (net corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), that result from considerations of asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.

Capital Market Line   Dico Tools
The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio. The line represents the risk premium you earn for taking on extra risk. Defined by the capital asset pricing model.

Capital Rationing   Dico Tools
Placing limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on the entire capital budget or parts of it.

Capital Requirements   Dico Tools
Financing required for the operation of a business, composed of long-term and working capital plus fixed assets.

Capital Shares   Dico Tools
One of two types of shares in a dual-purpose investment company, which entitle the holder to the appreciation or depreciation in the value of a portfolio, as well as the gains from trading in the portfolio. Antithesis of income shares.

Capital Stock   Dico Tools
The portion of a corporation's owners' equity contributed by investors (owners) in exchange for shares of stock.

Capital Structure   Dico Tools
The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.

Capital Surplus   Dico Tools
Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.

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Capital Turnover   Dico Tools
Calculated by dividing annual sales by average stockholder equity (net worth). The ratio indicates how much a company could grow its current capital investment level. Low capital turnover generally corresponds to high profit margins.

Capital-intensive   Dico Tools
Used to describe industries that require large investments in capital assets to produce their goods, such as the automobile industry. These firms require large profit margins and/or low costs of borrowing to survive.

Capitalization Method   Dico Tools
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a number of the most highly capitalized names in the stock index in proportion to their capitalization.

Capitalization Rate   Dico Tools
The rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a number of future payments.

Capitalization Ratios   Dico Tools
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.

Capitalization Table   Dico Tools
A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization ratios.

Capitalized   Dico Tools
Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures for items with useful lives longer than one year.

Capitalized Interest   Dico Tools
Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then amortized through the income statement over time.

Capitulation   Dico Tools
When investors give up any previous gains in stock price by selling equities in an effort to get out of the market and into less risky investments. True capitulation involves extremely high volume and sharp declines. It usually is indicated by panic selling. The term is a derived from a military term which refers to surrender.  After capitulation selling, it is thought that there are great bargains to be had. The belief is that everyone who wants to get out of a stock, for any reason (including forced selling due to margin calls), has sold. The price should then, theoretically, reverse or bounce off the lows. In other words, some investors believe that true capitulation is the sign of a bottom.

CAPM   Dico Tools
See: Capital asset pricing model

CAPS   Dico Tools
See: Convertible adjustable preferred stock

Captive Finance Company   Dico Tools
A company, usually a subsidiary that is wholly owned, whose main function is financing consumer purchases from the parent company.

Carrot Equity   Dico Tools
British slang for an equity investment with the added benefit of an opportunity to purchase more equity if the company reaches certain financial goals.

Carrying Charge   Dico Tools
The fee a broker charges for carrying securities on credit, such as on a margin account.

Carrying Costs   Dico Tools
Costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.

Carrying Value   Dico Tools
Book value.

CARs   Dico Tools
See: Certificates of Automobile Receivables

Cash   Dico Tools
Coins, currency, money orders, checks, and funds on deposit with financial institutions; the most liquid of assets.

Cash & Carry   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Combination of a long position in a stock/index/commodity and short position in the underlying futures, which entails a cost of carry on the long position.

Cash And Equivalents   Dico Tools
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

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Cash Asset Ratio   Dico Tools
Cash and marketable securities divided by current liabilities. See: Liquidity ratios.

Cash Basis   Dico Tools
Refers to the accounting method that recognizes revenues and expenses when cash is actually received or paid out.

Cash Budget   Dico Tools
A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its expected cash and loan balances.

Cash Commodity   Dico Tools
The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

Cash Conversion Cycle   Dico Tools
The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash from accounts receivable.

Cash Cow   Dico Tools
A company that pays out most of its earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

Cash Cycle   Dico Tools
In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

Cash Deficiency Agreement   Dico Tools
An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash deficiency the project may experience.

Cash Delivery   Dico Tools
The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

Cash Disbursements Journal   Dico Tools
A special journal in which all cash paid out for supplies, merchandise, salaries, and other items is recorded.

Cash Discount   Dico Tools
An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time period, such as ten days.

Cash Dividend   Dico Tools
A cash distribution of earnings to shareholders.  

Cash Earnings   Dico Tools
A firm's cash revenues less cash expenses, which excludes the costs of depreciation.

Cash Equivalents   Dico Tools
Short-term, highly liquid investments that can be converted easily into cash.

Cash Flow   Dico Tools
In investments, cash flow represents earnings before depreciation, amortization, and non-cash charges. Sometimes called cash earnings. Cash flow from operations (called funds from operations by real estate and other investment trusts) is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.

Cash Flow After Interest And Taxes   Dico Tools
Net income plus depreciation.

Cash Flow Break-even Point   Dico Tools
The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

Cash Flow Coverage Ratio   Dico Tools
The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments, preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental payments, and depreciation.

Cash Flow From Operations   Dico Tools
A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations (disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus noncash expenses that are deducted in calculating net income.

Cash Flow Matching   Dico Tools
Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization that calls for the manager to match the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the last liability to assure all required cash flows.

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Cash Flow Per Common Share   Dico Tools
Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the number of common shares outstanding.

Cash Flow Time Line   Dico Tools
Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

Cash Inflows   Dico Tools
Any current or expected revenues or savings directly associated with an investment.

Cash Management   Dico Tools
Refers to the efficient management of cash in a business in order to put the cash to work more quickly and to keep the cash in applications that produce income, such as the use of lock boxes for payments.

Cash Management Bill   Dico Tools
Very short-maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

Cash Markets   Dico Tools
Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security or instrument. Related: Derivative markets.

Cash Offer   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Proposal, either hostile or friendly, to acquire a target company through the payment of cash for the stock of the target. Compare to exchange offer.

Cash On Delivery   Dico Tools
In the context of securities, this refers to the practice of institutional investors paying the full purchase price for securities in cash.

Cash Outflows   Dico Tools
The initial cost and other expected outlays associated with an investment.

Cash Over And Short   Dico Tools
An account used to record overages and shortages in petty cash.

Cash Plus Convertible   Dico Tools
Convertible bond that requires cash payment upon conversion.

Cash Price   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. See: Spot price.

Cash Ratio   Dico Tools
The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

Cash Receipts Journal   Dico Tools
A special journal in which all cash received, from sales, interest, rent, or other sources, is recorded.

Cash Sale/settlement   Dico Tools
Transaction in which a contract is settled on the same day as the trade date, or the next day if the trade occurs after 2:30 p.m. EST and the parties agree to this procedure. Often occurs because a party is strapped for cash and cannot wait until the regular five-business day settlement. See: Settlement date.

Cash Settlement Contracts   Dico Tools
Futures contracts such as stock index futures that settle for cash and do not involve delivery of the underlying.

Cash Transaction   Dico Tools
A transaction in which exchange is immediate in the form of cash, unlike a forward contract (which calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price).

Cash-basis Accounting   Dico Tools
A system of accounting in which transactions are recorded and revenues and expenses are recognized only when cash is received or paid.

Cash-equivalent Items   Dico Tools
Examples include Treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

Cash-on-cash Return   Dico Tools
A method used to find the return on investments when there is no active secondary market. The yield is determined by dividing the annual cash income by the total investment. See: Current yield or yield to maturity.

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Cash-surrender Value   Dico Tools
The amount an insurance company will pay if the policyholder tende4s or cashes in a whole life insurance policy.

Cashbook   Dico Tools
An accounting book that is composed of cash receipts plus disbursements. This balance is posted to the cash account in the ledger.

Cashier's Check   Dico Tools
A check drawn directly on a customer's account, making the bank the primary obligor, and assuring firms that the amount will be paid.

Cashout   Dico Tools
Occurs when a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

Casualty Loss   Dico Tools
A financial loss caused by damage, destruction, or loss of property as a result of an unexpected or unusual event.

Casualty-insurance   Dico Tools
Insurance protecting a firm or homeowner against loss of property, damage, and other liabilities.

Catastrophe Call   Dico Tools
Early redemption of a municipal revenue bond because a catastrophe has destroyed the project that provided the revenue source backing the bond.

CATS   Dico Tools
See: Certificate of Accrual on Treasury Securities (CATS)

Cats And Dogs   Dico Tools
Speculative stocks with short histories of sales, earnings, and dividend payments.

Caveat Emptor, Caveat Subscriptor   Dico Tools
Latin expressions for "buyer beware" and "seller beware," which warn of overly risky, inadequately protected markets.

CBO   Dico Tools
See: Collateralized Bond Obligation.

CBOE   Dico Tools
See: Chicago Board Options Exchange

CD   Dico Tools
A timed deposit that may be protected by the FDIC, incurs penalty charges if money is withdrawn before the maturity date, and usually has a higher rate of return than other interest-bearing savings options.

CDN   Dico Tools
See: Canadian Dealing Network

CEC   Dico Tools
See: Commodities Exchange Center

CEDEL   Dico Tools
A centralized clearing system for Eurobonds.

CEG   Dico Tools
See: Canadian Exchange Group

Ceiling   Dico Tools
The maximum market amount at which inventory can be carried on the books; equal to net realizable value.

Central Bank   Dico Tools
A country's main bank whose responsibilities include the issue of currency, the administration of monetary policy, open market operations, and engaging in transactions designed to facilitate healthy business interactions. See: Federal Reserve System.

Certainty Equivalent   Dico Tools
An amount that would be accepted today (risk free) in lieu of a chance to receive a possibly higher, but uncertain, amount.

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Certificate Of Accrual On Treasury Securities   Dico Tools
Refers to a zero-coupon U.S. Treasury issue that is sold at a deep discount from the face value and pays no coupon interest during its lifetime, but returns the full face value at maturity.

Certificate Of Deposit   Dico Tools
A timed deposit that may be protected by the FDIC, incurs penalty charges if money is withdrawn before the maturity date, and usually has a higher rate of return than other interest-bearing savings options.

Certificateless Municipals   Dico Tools
Municipal bonds with one certificate which is valid for the entire issue, and having no individual certificates, easing transactions. See: Book-entry securities.

Certificates Of Amortized Revolving Debt   Dico Tools
Pass-through securities backed by credit card receivables.

Certificates Of Automobile Receivables   Dico Tools
Pass-through securities backed by automobile loan receivables.

Certified Check   Dico Tools
A bank guaranteed check for which funds are immediately withdrawn, and for which the bank is legally liable.

Certified Financial Planner   Dico Tools
A person who has passed examinations accredited by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, showing that the person is able to manage a client's banking, estate, insurance, investment, and tax affairs.

Certified Financial Statements   Dico Tools
Financial statements that include an accountant's opinion.

Certified Public Accountant   Dico Tools
A special designation given to an accountant who has passed a national uniform examination and has met other certifying requirements; CPA certificates are issued and monitored by state boards of accountancy or similar agencies.

CFAT   Dico Tools
Cash flow after taxes.

CFTC   Dico Tools
See: Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Chair Of The Board   Dico Tools
Highest-ranking member of a Board of Directors, who presides over its meetings and who is often the most powerful officer of a corporation.

Changes In Financial Position   Dico Tools
Sources of funds provided from operations that alter a company's cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures.

Characteristic Line   Dico Tools
The market model applied to a single security; a regression of security returns on the benchmark return. The slope of the regression line is a security's beta.

Charge Off   Dico Tools
See: Bad debt

Charitable Remainder Trust   Dico Tools
An irrevocable trust that pays income to a designated person or persons until the grantor's death, when the income is passed on to a designated charity. A charitable lead trust by contrast allows the charity to receive income during the grantor's life, and the remaining income to pass to designated family members upon the grantor's death.

Chart Of Account (COA)   Dico Tools
Chart Of Account (COA): Is a list of the accounts used by an organization. The list can be numerical, alphabetic, or alpha-numeric. The structure and headings of accounts should assist in consistent posting of transactions. Each nominal ledger account is unique to allow its ledger to be located. The list is typically arranged in the order of the customary appearance of accounts in the financial statements, profit and loss accounts followed by balance sheet accounts.

Chart Of Accounts   Dico Tools
A systematic listing of all accounts used by a company.

Charter   Dico Tools
A document issued by a state that gives legal status to a corporation and details its specific rights, including the authority to issue a certain maximum number of shares of stock.

Chartered Financial Analyst   Dico Tools
An experienced financial analyst who has passed examinations in economics, financial accounting, portfolio management, security analysis, and standards of conduct given by the institute of Chartered Financial Analysts.

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Chartists   Dico Tools
A technical analyst who charts the patterns of stocks, bonds, and commodities to find trends in patterns of trading used to advise clients. Related: Technical analysts.

Chasing The Market   Dico Tools
Purchasing a security at a higher price than expected because prices are rapidly climbing, or selling a security at a lower level when prices are quickly falling.

Chastity Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds redeemable at par value in the case of a takeover.

Cheapest To Deliver Issue   Dico Tools
The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.

Check Register   Dico Tools
A record of all activity that happens within a checking account; maintained by the checking account holder.

Checking Account   Dico Tools
An account from which the account holder can write checks.

Checking The Market   Dico Tools
Searching for bid and offer prices from market makers to find the best deal.

Chicago Board Of Trade   Dico Tools
The largest futures exchange in the U.S., and was a pioneer in the development of financial futures and options.

Chicago Board Options Exchange   Dico Tools
A securities exchange created in the early 1970s for the public trading of standardized option contracts. Primary place stock options, foreign currency options, and index options (S&P 100, 500, and 0.T.C. 250 index)

Chicago Mercantile Exchange   Dico Tools
A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, to collect and disseminate market information, to maintain a clearing mechanism, and to enforce trading rules. Applies to derivative products. Primary place futures (O.T.C. 250 industrial stock price index, S& P 100 and 500 index) and futures options (S&P 500 stock index) are traded.

Chicago Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
A major exchange trading only stocks, with 90% of trades taking place on an automated execution system, called MAX.

Chief Executive Officer   Dico Tools
A title held often by the Chairperson of the Board, or the president. The person principally responsible for the activities of a company.

Chief Financial Officer   Dico Tools
The officer of a firm is responsible for handling the financial affairs of a company.

Chief Operating Officer   Dico Tools
The officer of a firm responsible for day-to-day management, usually the president or an executive vice-president.

Chinese Hedge   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Trading hedge in which one is short the convertible and long the underlying common, in the hope that the convertible's premium will fall. Antithesis of set-up.

Chinese Wall   Dico Tools
Communication barrier between financiers at a firm (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.

CHIPS   Dico Tools
See: Clearing House Interbank Payments System

Choice Market   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to international equities. Locked market in London terminology.

Cincinnati Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
Stock exchange based in Cincinnati that is the only fully automated stock exchange in the U.S. It has no trading floor, but handles all members' transactions using computers.

Circuit Breakers   Dico Tools
Measures instituted by exchanges to stop trading temporarily when the market has fallen by a certain percentage in a specified period. They are intended to prevent a market free fall by permitting buy and sell orders to rebalance.

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Circus Swap   Dico Tools
A fixed-rate currency swap against floating U.S. dollar LIBOR payments.

Citizen Bonds   Dico Tools
Certificateless municipals that can be registered on stock exchanges and are listed in newspapers.

City Code On Takeovers And Mergers   Dico Tools
See: Dawn raid

Claim Dilution   Dico Tools
A decrease in the likelihood that one or more of a firm's claimants will be fully repaid, including time value of money considerations.

Class A/Class B Shares   Dico Tools
See: Classified stock

Class Action   Dico Tools
A legal complaint filed by a lawyer or group of lawyers for a group of petitioners with an identical grievance, often with an award proportionate to the number of shareholders involved.

Classified Balance Sheet   Dico Tools
A balance sheet in which assets and liabilities are subdivided into current and noncurrent categories.

Classified Stock   Dico Tools
The division of stock into more than one class of common stock, usually called Class A and Class B. The specific features of each class, which are set out in the charter and bylaws, usually give certain advantages to the Class A shares, such as increased voting power.

Clean Opinion   Dico Tools
An auditor's opinion reflecting an unqualified acceptance of a company's financial statements.

Clean Price   Dico Tools
Bond price excluding accrued interest.

Clean Up   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, purchase/sale of all the remaining supply of stock, or the last piece of a block, in a trade-leaving a net zero position.

Clean Your Skirts   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, "make all your obligated calls"; check with all prior obligations in a security. Often preceded by "subject to."

Clear A Position   Dico Tools
To eliminate a long or short position, leaving no ownership or obligation.

Clear Title   Dico Tools
Title to ownership that is untainted by any claims on the property or disputed interests, and therefore available for sale. This is usually checked through a title search by a title company.

Clearing Corporations   Dico Tools
Organizations that are affiliated with exchanges and are used to complete securities transactions by taking care of validation, delivery, and settlement.

Clearing House Automated Payments System   Dico Tools
A computerized clearing system for sterling funds that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).

Clearing House Electronic Subregister System   Dico Tools
CHESS is the automatic transfer and settlement system for the majority of Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) listed securities.

Clearing House Funds   Dico Tools
Funds from the Federal Reserve System, requiring three days to clear, that are passed to and from banks.

Clearing House Interbank Payments System   Dico Tools
An international wire transfer system for high-value payments operated by a group of major banks.

Clearing Member   Dico Tools
A member firm of a clearing house. Each clearing member must also be a member of the exchange. Not all members of the exchange, however, are members of the clearing organization. All trades of a non-clearing member must be registered with, and eventually settled through, a clearing member.

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Clearinghouse   Dico Tools
An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed on its floor are settled by a process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.

Clientele Effect   Dico Tools
Describes the tendary of funds or investments to be followed by groups of investors who have a simular preferences that the firm follow a particular financing policy, such as the amount of leverage it uses.

Clone Fund   Dico Tools
A new fund set up in a fund family to emulate another successful fund.

Close A Position   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, eliminate an investment from one's portfolio, by either selling a long position or covering a short position.

Close Market   Dico Tools
An active market in which there is a narrow spread between bid and offer prices, due to a high volume of trading and many competing market makers.

Closed Corporation   Dico Tools
A corporation whose shares are owned by just a few people, having no public market.

Closed Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund that is no longer issuing shares, mainly because it has grown too large.

Closed Out   Dico Tools
Position that is liquidated when the client does not meet a margin call or cover a short sale.

Closed Transaction   Dico Tools
A transaction that is completed within the accounting period; both the purchase and payment or sale and receipt of payment occur within the same accounting period.

Closed-end Fund   Dico Tools
An investment company that sells shareslike any other corporation and usually does not redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.

Closed-end Management Company   Dico Tools
An investment company that has only a set number of shares of the mutual fund that it manages, and does not create new shares if demand increases. Antithesis of an open-end management company.

Closed-end Mortgage   Dico Tools
Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.

Closely Held   Dico Tools
A corporation whose voting stock is owned by only a few shareholders.

Closely Held Company   Dico Tools
A company who has a small group of controling shareholders. In contrast, a widely-held firm has many shareholders. It is difficult or impossible to wage a proxy battle for any closely-held firm.

Closing Costs   Dico Tools
All the expenses involved in transferring ownership of real estate.

Closing Entries   Dico Tools
Entries that reduce all nominal, or temporary, accounts to a zero balance at the end of each accounting period, transferring their preclosing balances to a permanent balance sheet account.  

Closing Price   Dico Tools
Price of the last transaction of a particular stock completed during a day's trading session on an exchange.

Closing Purchase   Dico Tools
A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in a stock, or in a given series of options.

Closing Quote   Dico Tools
The last bid and offer prices of a particular stock at the close of a day's trading session on an exchange.

Closing Range   Dico Tools
Also known as the range. The high and low prices, or bids and offers, recorded during the period designated as the official close. Related: Settlement price.

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Closing Sale   Dico Tools
A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock, or a given series of options.

Closing Tick   Dico Tools
The net of the number of stocks whose closing prices are higher than their previous trades (uptick) against the number of stocks whose closing prices were lower than their previous trades (downtick). A positive closing tick indicates "buying at the close", or a bullish market; a negative closing tick indicates "selling at the close," or a bearish market. See: TRIN.

Closing Transaction   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Buy or sell transaction that eliminates an existing position (selling a long option or buying back a short option). Antithesis of opening transaction.

Cloud   Dico Tools
Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams.

Cloud On Title   Dico Tools
Any claim or encumbrance, usually discovered in a title search, that may impair the title to a property, and make its validity questionable. See: bad title.

Cluster Analysis   Dico Tools
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated across clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable, and energy stocks.

CMBS   Dico Tools
See: Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities

CME   Dico Tools
See: Chicago Mercantile Exchange

CML   Dico Tools
See: Capital market line

CMO   Dico Tools
See: Collateralized mortgage obligation

CMO REIT   Dico Tools
A very risky type of Real Estate Investment Trust investing in the residual cash flows of Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMOs). CMO cash_flows are derived from the difference between the rates paid by the mortgage loan holders and the lower, shorter-term rates paid to CMO investors.

Coattail Investing   Dico Tools
A risky trading practice of making trades similar to those of other successful investors, usually institutional investors.

COD Transaction   Dico Tools
See: Delivery versus payment

Code Of Procedure   Dico Tools
The guide of the National Association of Securities Dealers used to adjudicate complaints filed against NASD members.

Coefficient Of Determination   Dico Tools
A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return. Also known as R-square.

Coffee, Sugar & Cocoa Exchange   Dico Tools
The New York-based commodity exchange trading futures and options. The CS&CE shares the trading floor at the Commodities Exchange Center.

Coincident Indicators   Dico Tools
Economic indicators that give an indication of the status of the economy.

Coinsurance Effect   Dico Tools
Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms lessens the probability of default on either firm's debt.

Cold-calling   Dico Tools
Calling potential new customers in the hope of selling stocks, bonds or other financial products and receiving commissions.

Collateral Trust Bonds   Dico Tools
A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond.

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Collateralized Bond Obligation   Dico Tools
Investment-grade bonds backed by a collection of junk bonds with different levels of risk, called tiers, that are determined by the quality of junk bond involved. CBOs backed by highly risky junk bonds receive higher interest rates than other CBOs.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation   Dico Tools
A security backed by a pool of pass-through rates , structured so that there are several classes of bondholders with varying maturities, called tranches. The principal payments from the underlying pool of pass-through securities are used to retire the bonds on a priority basis as specified in the prospectus. Related: mortgage pass-through security.

Collection Float   Dico Tools
The period between the time is deposited a check in an account and the time funds are made available.

Collection Fractions   Dico Tools
The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each month following the month of sale.

Collection Period   Dico Tools
See: Collection ratio

Collection Policy   Dico Tools
Procedures a firm follows in attempting to collect accounts receivables.

Collection Ratio   Dico Tools
The ratio of a company's accounts receivable to its average daily sales, which gives the average number of days it takes the company to convert receivables into cash.

Collective Wisdom   Dico Tools
The combination of all the individual opinions about a stock's or security's value.

Comanager   Dico Tools
A bank that ranks just below a lead manager in a syndicated Eurocredit or international bond issue. Comanagers may assist the lead manager bank in the pricing and issue of the instrument.

Combination Annuity   Dico Tools
See: Hybrid annuity

Combination Bond   Dico Tools
A bond backed by the government unit issuing it as well as by revenue from the project that is to be financed by the bond.

Combination Matching   Dico Tools
Also called horizon-matching, a variation of multiperiod immunization and cash flow-matching in which a portfolio is created that is always duration-matched and also cash-matched in the first few years.

Combination Order   Dico Tools
See: Alternative order

Combination Strategy   Dico Tools
A strategy in which a put and call with the same strike price and expiration are either both bought or both sold. Related: Straddle

Combined Financial Statement   Dico Tools
A financial statement that merges the assets, liabilities, net worth, and operating figures of two or more affiliated companies. A combined statement is distinguished from a consolidated financial statement of a company and subsidiaries, which must reconcile investment and capital accounts.

Come In   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, a fall in price.

Come Out Of The Trade   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, trader's position in a security that results from executing a trade (or the expectations thereof). Antithesis of going into the trade.

Comeout   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, the opening. Antithesis of the close.

COMEX   Dico Tools
A division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). Formerly known as the Commodity Exchange, COMEX is the leading U.S. market for metals futures and options trading.

Comfort Letter   Dico Tools
A letter from an independent auditor in securities underwriting agreements to assure that information in the registration statement and prospectus is correctly prepared to the best of the auditor's knowledge.

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Commercial Draft   Dico Tools
Demand for payment.

Commercial Hedgers   Dico Tools
Companies that take futures positions in commodities so that they can guarantee prices at which they will buy raw materials or sell their products.

Commercial Loan   Dico Tools
A short-term loan, typically 90 days, used by a company to finance seasonal working capital needs.

Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities   Dico Tools
Similar to MBS but backed by loans secured with commercial rather than residential property. Commercial property includes multi-family, retail, office, etc., They are not standardized so there are a lot of details associated with structure, credit enhancement, diversification, etc., that need to be understood when valuing these instruments.

Commercial Paper   Dico Tools
Short-term unsecured promissory notes issued by a corporation. The maturity of commercial paper is typically less than 270 days; the most common maturity range is 30 to 50 days or less.

Commercial Property   Dico Tools
Real estate that produces some sort of income-producing property.

Commercial Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events, such as bankruptcy.

Commingling   Dico Tools
In the context of securities, this involves mixing customer-owned securities with brokerage firm-owned securities. This process is referred to as rehypothecation, which is the use of customers' collateral to secure their loans. This is legal with customer consent, although some securities and collateral must be kept separately.

Commission   Dico Tools
A fee to a third party for assisting a business transaction, such as buying or selling an asset.

Commission Broker   Dico Tools
A broker on the floor of an exchange who acts as agent for a particular brokerage house and buys and sells stocks for the brokerage house on a commission basis.

Commission House   Dico Tools
A firm that buys and sells futures contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures commission merchant, omnibus account.

Commitment Fee   Dico Tools
A fee paid to a commercial bank in return for its legal commitment to lend funds that have not yet been advanced. Often used in risk arbitrage. Payment to institutional investors in the U.K. (pension funds and life insurance companies) by the lead underwriter of a takeover that takes place when the underwriter provides the target company's shareholders with a cash alternative for a target company's shares in exchange for the bidding companies' shares. The payment is typically 0.5% for the first 30 days, 1.25% for each week thereafter, and a final 0.75% acceptance payment when the takeover is completed.

Committee On Uniform Securities Identification Pro   Dico Tools
Committee that assigns identifying numbers and codes for all securities. These "CUSIP" numbers and symbols are used when recording all buy or sell orders.

Commodities Exchange Center   Dico Tools
The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity Exchange, Inc. (COMEX); the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX); New York Cotton Exchange, Coffee, Sugar ;&; Cocoa Exchange (CS;&;CE), and New York Futures Exchange (NYFE).

Commodity Futures Contract   Dico Tools
An agreement to buy a specific amount of a commodity at a specified price on a particular date in the future, allowing a producer to guarantee the price of a product or raw material used in production.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission   Dico Tools
An agency created by the U.S. Congress in 1974 to regulate exchange trading in futures.

Commodity Indexs   Dico Tools
Indexs measuring the price and performance of physical commodities, often by the price of futures contracts for the commodities that are listed on commodity exchanges.

Commodity Paper   Dico Tools
A loan or advance secured by commodities.

Commodity-backed Bond   Dico Tools
A bond with interest payments tied to the price of an underlying commodity.

Common Code   Dico Tools
A nine-digit identification code issued jointly by CEDEL and Euroclear. As of January 1991 common codes replaced the earlier separate CEDEL and Euroclear codes.

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Common Market   Dico Tools
An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital and labor as well as goods and services.

Common Shares   Dico Tools
In general, a public corooration has two types of shares, common and preferred. The common shares usually entitle the shareholders to vote at shareholders meetings. The common shares have a discretionary dividend.

Common Stock   Dico Tools
The most frequently issued class of stock; usually it provides a voting right but is secondary to preferred stock in dividend and liquidation rights.  

Common Stock   Dico Tools
The most frequently issued class of stock; usually it provides a voting right but is secondary to preferred stock in dividend and liquidation rights.  

Common Stock Equivalent   Dico Tools
A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned common stock is trading at a high price.

Common Stock Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund investing only in common stock.

Common Stock Market   Dico Tools
The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.

Common Stock Ratios   Dico Tools
Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings (cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.

Common Stock/other Equity   Dico Tools
Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Common-base-year Analysis   Dico Tools
The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages of amounts in an initial year.

Common-size Analysis   Dico Tools
The representing of balance sheet items as percentages of assets and of income statement items as percentages of sales.

Common-size Statement   Dico Tools
A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of analyzing trends and changing relationship among financial statement items. For example, all items in each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.

Companion Bonds   Dico Tools
A class of a Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO) whose principal is paid off first when the underlying mortgages are prepaid due to falling interest rates. When interest rates rise, there will be lower prepayments of the principal; companion bonds therefore absorb most of the prepayment risk of a CMO.

Company Doctor   Dico Tools
An executive, usually appointed from outside, brought in to turn a company around and make it profitable.

Company-specific Risk   Dico Tools
Related: Unsystematic risk

Comparative Credit Analysis   Dico Tools
Comparing a firm to others that have a desired target debt rating in order to deduce an appropriate financial ratio target.

Comparative Financial Statements   Dico Tools
Financial statements in which data for two or more years are shown together.

Comparative Statements   Dico Tools
Financial statements for different periods, that allo the comparson of figures to illustrate trends in a company's performance.

Comparison Universe   Dico Tools
A group of money managers of similar investment style used to assess relative performance of a portfolio manager.

Compensating Balance   Dico Tools
An excess balance that is left in a bank to provide indirect compensation for loans extended or services provided.

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Compensation   Dico Tools
The total wage or salary and benefits that an employee receives.

Competition Ahead   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Situation whereby another O.T.C. market maker has transacted with investment bank at the stated market level before the bid/offer has been made.

Competitive Bidding   Dico Tools
A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell.

Competitive Offering   Dico Tools
An offering of securities through competitive bidding.

Complete Capital Market   Dico Tools
A market in which there is a distinctive marketable security for each and every possible outcome.

Complete Portfolio   Dico Tools
The entire portfolio, including risky and risk-free assets.

Completion Bonding   Dico Tools
Insurance that a construction contract will be completed successfully.

Completion Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that a project will not be brought into operation successfully.

Completion Undertaking   Dico Tools
An undertaking either (1) to complete a project so that it meets certain specified performance criteria on or before a certain specified date, or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test cannot be met.

Compliance Department   Dico Tools
A department in all organized stock exchanges to ensure that all companies, traders, and brokerage firms comply with Securities and Exchange Commission and exchange rules and regulations.

Composite Tape   Dico Tools
See: Tape

Compound Annual Return   Dico Tools
See: Internal rate of return

Compound Growth Rate   Dico Tools
The rate of growth of a figure, compounded over some period of time.

Compound Interest   Dico Tools
Interest credited daily, monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually on both principal and previously credited interest.

Compound Journal Entry   Dico Tools
A journal entry that involves more than one debit or more than one credit or both.  

Compound Option   Dico Tools
Option on an option.

Compounding Frequency   Dico Tools
The number of compounding periods in a year. For example, quarterly compounding has a compounding frequency of 4.

Compounding Period   Dico Tools
The period of time for which interest is computed.

Comprehensive Due Diligence Investigation   Dico Tools
The investigation of a firm's business in conjunction with a securities offering to determine whether the firm's business and financial situation and its prospects are adequately disclosed in the prospectus for the offering.

Comptroller Of The Currency   Dico Tools
A government official, appointed by the president, who keeps control over all national banks, and receives reports from the banks at least quarterly, to be published in newspapers.

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Computerized Market Timing System   Dico Tools
A computer system that compiles large amounts of trading data in search of patterns and trends to make buy and sell recommendations.

Concentration Account   Dico Tools
A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations (lockboxes) are transferred.

Concentration Services   Dico Tools
Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration account from which disbursements and investments are made.

Concession Agreement   Dico Tools
An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the rules under which the company can operate locally.

Conditional Call   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Circumstances under which a company can effect an earlier call, usually stated as percentage of a stock's trading price during a particular period, such as 140% of the exercise price during a 40-day trading span.

Conditional Call Options   Dico Tools
A protective guarantee that, in the event a hign yield bond is called, the issuing corporation will replace the bond with a noncallable bond of the same life and terms as the bond that is being called.

Conditional Sales Contracts   Dico Tools
Similar to equipment trust certificates, except that the lender is either the equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to which the manufacturer has sold the conditional sales contract.

Conduit Principle   Dico Tools
The idea that all income earned by an entity must be passed through to the owners and reported on their individual tax returns; applicable to proprietorships, partnerships, and S corporations.

Conduit Theory   Dico Tools
A theory that because investment companies are merely conduits for capital gains, dividends, and interest, which are in fact passed through to shareholders, the investment company should not be taxed at the corporate level.

Confidence Indicator   Dico Tools
A measure of investors' faith in the economy and the securities market. A low or deteriorating level of confidence is considered by many technical analysts as a bearish sign.

Confidence Letter   Dico Tools
Statement by an investment bank that it is highly confident that the financing for its client/acquirer's takeover can and will be obtained. Often used in risk arbitrage.

Confidence Level   Dico Tools
In risk analysis, the degree of assurance that a specified failure rate is not exceeded.

Confirm Me Out   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. "Go to the floor and check with the specialist or floor broker that my previously active order has been cancelled and was not executed". One does not have to honor any trade reported after given a "firm out".

Conflict Between Bondholders And Stockholders   Dico Tools
Bondholders and stockholders may have interests in a corporation that conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective covenants in bond documents work to resolve these conflicts.

Conforming Loans   Dico Tools
Mortgage loans that meet the qualifications of Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae, which are bought from lenders and issued as pass-through securities.

Conglomerate Merger   Dico Tools
A merger involving two or more firms that are in unrelated businesses.

Consensus Forecast   Dico Tools
The mean of all financial analysts' forecasts for a company.

Consignee   Dico Tools
A vendor who sells merchandise owned by another party, known as the consignor, usually on a commission basis.  

Consignment   Dico Tools
An arrangement whereby merchandise owned by one party (the consignor) is sold by another party (the consignee), usually on a commission basis.  

Consol   Dico Tools
A government bond with no maturity . Popular in Great Britain. The formula for valuing these bonds is simple. The consol payment divided by yield to maturity is the price of the bond.

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Consolidated Financial Statement   Dico Tools
A financial statement that shows all the assets, liabilities, and operating accounts of a parent company and its subsidiaries.

Consolidated Financial Statements   Dico Tools
Statements that report the combined operating results, financial position, and cash flows of two or more legally separate but affiliated companies as if they were one economic entity.  

Consolidated Mortgage Bond   Dico Tools
A bond that covers several units of property, sometimes refinancing mortgages on the properties.

Consolidated Tape   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Combined ticker tapes of the NYSE and the curb. Network A covers the NYSE-listed securities and is used to identify the originating market. Network B does the same for AMEX-listed securities and also reports on securities listed on regional stock exchanges. See: tape.

Consolidated Tax Return   Dico Tools
A tax return combining the reports of affiliated companies, that are at least 80% owned by a parent company.

Consolidation Loan   Dico Tools
A loan that is used to combine and finance payments on other loans.

Consortium Banks   Dico Tools
A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the same nationality. Consortium banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication.

Constant Dollars   Dico Tools
Dollars of a base year used as a general measure of purchasing power.

Constant Ratio Plan   Dico Tools
Maintaining a predetermined ratio between stock and fixed income investments through regular adjustments of distribution of funds into different investments. See: formula investing.

Constant Yield Method   Dico Tools
Allocation of annual interest on a zero-coupon security for income tax use.

Constant-dollar Plan   Dico Tools
Method of purchasing securities by investing a fixed amount of money at set intervals. The investor buys more shares when the price is low and fewer shares when the price is high, thus reducing the overall cost.

Constant-growth Model   Dico Tools
Also called the Gordon-Shapiro model, an application of the dividend discount model that assumes (1) a fixed growth rate for future dividends, and (2) a single discount rate.

Construction Loan   Dico Tools
A short-term loan to finance building costs.

Constructive Receipt   Dico Tools
The date a taxpayer receives dividends or other income, for use in the determination of taxes.

Consumer Credit   Dico Tools
Credit a firm grants to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called retail credit.

Consumer Credit Protection Act Of 1968   Dico Tools
Federal legislation establishing rules for the disclosure of the terms of a loan to protect borrowers. See: Truth in lending.

Consumer Debenture   Dico Tools
An investment note issued directly to the public by a financial institution.

Consumer Durables   Dico Tools
Consumer products that are expected to last three years or more, such as an automobile or a home appliance.

Consumer Finance Company   Dico Tools
See: Finance company

Consumer Goods   Dico Tools
Goods not used in production but, bought for personal or household use such as food, clothing, and entertainment.

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Consumer Interest   Dico Tools
Interest paid on consumer loans; e.g., interest on credit cards and retail purchases.

Consumer Price Index   Dico Tools
The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S. Department of Labor publishes the CPI every month.

Consumption Tax   Dico Tools
See: Value-added tax

Contango   Dico Tools
A market condition in which futures prices are higher in the distant delivery months.

Contingency Order   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, order to buy one security, if the trader can sell another, usually given that certain price limits or conditions reach a certain level. Swap, switch order.

Contingent Claim   Dico Tools
A claim that can be made only if one or more specified outcomes occur.

Contingent Deferred Sales Charge   Dico Tools
The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.

Contingent Immunization   Dico Tools
An arrangement in which the money manager pursues an active bond portfolio strategy until an adverse investment experience drives the then-available potential return down to the safety net level. When that point is reached, the money manager is obligated to pursue an immunization strategy to lock in the safety-net level return.

Contingent Liability   Dico Tools
A potential obligation, dependent upon the occurrence of future events.  

Contingent Pension Liability   Dico Tools
Under ERISA, a firm is liable to its pension plan participants for up to 39% of the net worth of the firm.

Continuous Compounding   Dico Tools
The process of accumulating the time value of money forward in time on a continuous, or instantaneous, basis. Interest is earned constantly, and at each instant, the interest that accrues immediately begins earning interest on itself.

Continuous Net Settlement   Dico Tools
Method of securities clearing and settlement using a clearing house, which matches transactions to securities available, resulting in one net receive or deliver position at the end of the day.

Continuous Random Variable   Dico Tools
A random value that can take any fractional value within specified ranges, as contrasted with a discrete variable.

Contra Account   Dico Tools
An account that is offset or deducted from another account.  

Contra Broker   Dico Tools
The broker on the buy side of a sell order or the sell side of a buy order.

Contract Month   Dico Tools
The month in which futures contracts may be satisfied by making or accepting a delivery.

Contractual Plan   Dico Tools
A plan in which fixed dollar amounts of mutual fund shares are purchased through periodic investments, usually featuring some sort of additional incentive for the fixed period payments.

Contramarket Stock   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, stock that tends to go against the trend of the market as a whole, such as a commodities-related stock or one in an industry out of favor with investors in a bull market.

Contributed Capital   Dico Tools
The portion of owners' equity contributed by investors (the owners) in exchange for shares of stock.  

Contribution Margin   Dico Tools
The difference between variable revenue and variable cost.

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Control Account   Dico Tools
A summary account in the General Ledger that is supported by detailed individual accounts in a subsidiary ledger.

Control Activities   Dico Tools
Policies and procedures used by management to meet its objectives; generally divided into adequate segregation of duties, proper authorization of transactions and activities, adequate documents and records, physical control over assets and records, and independent checks on performance.

Control Environment   Dico Tools
The actions, policies, and procedures that reflect the overall attitudes of top management, the directors, and the owners about control and its importance to the entity.  

Control Person   Dico Tools
See: Affiliated person

Control Stock   Dico Tools
The shares owned by the controlling shareholders of a corporation.

Controlled Commodities   Dico Tools
Commodities regulated by the Commodities Exchange Act of 1936 in order to prevent fraud and manipulation in commodities futures markets.

Controlled Disbursement   Dico Tools
A service that provides for a single presentation of checks each day (typically in the early part of the day).

Controlled Foreign Corporation   Dico Tools
A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.

Convenience Yield   Dico Tools
The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than a future position.

Convention Statement   Dico Tools
An annual statement filed by a life insurance company in each state where it does business in compliance with that state's regulations. The statement and supporting documents show, among other things, the assets, liabilities, and surplus of the reporting company.

Conventional Mortgage   Dico Tools
A loan based on the credit of the borrower and on the collateral for the mortgage.

Conventional Option   Dico Tools
An option contract arranged off the trading floor and not traded regularly.

Conventional Pass-throughs   Dico Tools
Also called private-label pass-throughs, any mortgage pass-through security not guaranteed by government agencies. Compare agency pass-throughs.

Conventional Project   Dico Tools
A project with a negative initial cash flow (cash outflow), which is expected to be followed by one or more future positive cash flows (cash inflows).

Conversion Factors   Dico Tools
Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract.

Conversion Feature   Dico Tools
Specification of the right to transform a particular investment to another form of investment, such as switching between mutual funds or converting preferred stock or bonds to common stock.

Conversion Parity   Dico Tools
See: Market conversion price

Conversion Parity Price   Dico Tools
Related: Market conversion price

Conversion Parity/value   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Common stock price at which a convertible bond can become exchangeable for common shares of equal value; value of a convertible bond based solely on the market value of the underlying equity. Par value + conversion ratio. See bond value, investment value, parity.

Conversion Premium   Dico Tools
The extent by which the conversion price of a convertible security exceeds the prevailing common stock price at the time the convertible security is issued.

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Conversion Price   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Dollar value at which convertible bonds, debentures, or preferred stock can be converted into common stock, as specified when the convertible is issued.

Conversion Ratio   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Relationship that determines how many shares of common stock will be received in exchange for each convertible bond or preferred stock when a conversion takes place. It is determined at the time of issue and is expressed either as a ratio or as a conversion price from which the ratio can be figured by dividing the par value of the convertible by the conversion price.

Conversion Value   Dico Tools
The value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately. Also called parity value.

Convertible 100   Dico Tools
Goldman Sachs index of the 100 convertibles of greatest institutional importance. Weighted by issue size, it measures the performance of its components against that of their underlying common stock and against other broad market indexs as well.

Convertible Adjustable Preferred Stock   Dico Tools
The interest rate on caps is adjustable and is pegged to Treasury security rates. They can be exchanged at par value for common stock or cash after the next period's dividend rates are revealed.

Convertible Arbitrage   Dico Tools
A practice, usually of buying a convertible bond and shorting a percentage of the equivalent underlying common shares, to create a positive cash flow position (with expected returns above the riskless rate) in a static environment and benifit from capital appreciation should the convertible's premium. This form of investing is far from riskless and requires constant monitoring. See: Chinese hedge and set-up.

Convertible Bond   Dico Tools
General debt obligation of a corporation that can be exchanged for a set number of common shares of the issuing corporation at a prestated conversion price.

Convertible Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds that can be traded for, or converted to, other securities after a specified period of time.

Convertible Eurobond   Dico Tools
A eurobond that can be converted into another asset, often through exercise of attached warrants.

Convertible Exchangeable Preferred Stock   Dico Tools
Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred stock.

Convertible Preferred Stock   Dico Tools
Preferred stock that can be converted to common stock at a specified conversion rate.

Convertible Price   Dico Tools
The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be converted into shares of common stock.

Convertible Security   Dico Tools
A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the securityholder; includes convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock.

Cook The Books   Dico Tools
To deliberately falsify the financial statements of a company. This is an illegal practice.

Cooling-off Period   Dico Tools
The period of time between the filing of a preliminary prospectus with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the actual public offering of the securities.

Copenhagen Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
The only securities exchange in Denmark. It features electronic trading of stocks, bonds, futures, and options.

Core Capital   Dico Tools
The capital required of a thrift institution, which must be at least 2% of assets to meet the rules of the Federal Home Loan Bank.

Core Competence   Dico Tools
Primary area of expertise. Narrowly defined fields or tasks at which a company or business excels. Primary areas of specialty.

Cornering The Market   Dico Tools
Purchasing a security or commodity in such volume as to achieve control over its price. An illegal practice.

Corporate Acquisition   Dico Tools
The acquisition of one firm by another firm.

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Corporate Bonds   Dico Tools
Debt obligations issued by corporations.

Corporate Charter   Dico Tools
A legal document creating a corporation.

Corporate Equivalent Yield   Dico Tools
A comparison of the after-tax yield of government bonds selling at a discount and corporate bonds selling at par.

Corporate Finance   Dico Tools
One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm (both the investment decision and the financing decision) from the firm's point of view.

Corporate Financial Management   Dico Tools
The application of financial principles within a corporation to create and maintain value through decision-making and proper resource management.

Corporate Financial Planning   Dico Tools
Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both long-and short-term financial plans.

Corporate Financing Committee   Dico Tools
A committee of the NASD that reviews underwriters' SEC-required documents to ensure that proposed markups are fair and in the public interest.

Corporate Income Fund   Dico Tools
A unit investment trust featuring a fixed portfolio of high-grade securities and other investments, usually with monthly distribution of income.

Corporate Processing Float   Dico Tools
The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the deposit of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer payments.

Corporate Repurchase   Dico Tools
Active buying by a corporation of its own stock in the marketplace. Reasons for repurchase include putting idle cash to use, raising EPS, creating support for a stock price, increasing internal control (shark repellant), or stock for ESOP or pension plans. Repurchase is subject to rules, such as that buying must be on a zero minus or a minus tick, after the opening and before 3:30 p.m.

Corporate Tax View   Dico Tools
The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes debt a cheaper financing method.

Corporate Taxable Equivalent   Dico Tools
Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to maturity that the quoted premium or discount bond would generate.

Corporation   Dico Tools
A legal entity chartered by a state; ownership is represented by transferable shares of stock.

Correlation Coefficient   Dico Tools
A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables, defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables.

Cost Accounting   Dico Tools
A branch of accounting that provides information to help the management of a firm evaluate production costs and efficiency.

Cost Basis   Dico Tools
The original price of an asset, used to determine capital gains.

Cost Company Arrangement   Dico Tools
Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.

Cost Me   Dico Tools
Refers to over-the-counter trading. "The price I must pay to obtain the securities you wish to buy is [$]". Usually, a standard markup (1/8) is then applied for resale to this buyer. Antithesis of can get.

Cost Method Of Accounting For Investments In Stock   Dico Tools
Method used to account for an investment in the stock of another company when less than 20 percent of the outstanding voting stock is owned.

Cost Of Capital   Dico Tools
The required return for a capital budgeting project.

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Cost Of Carry   Dico Tools
Costs incurred as a result of an investment position. These costs can include financial costs, such as the interest costs on bonds, interest expenses on margin accounts and interest on loans used to purchase a security, and economic costs, such as the opportunity costs associated with taking the initial position.  

Cost Of Equity   Dico Tools
The required rate of return for an investment of 100% equity.

Cost Of Funds   Dico Tools
Interest rate associated with borrowing money.

Cost Of Goods Sold   Dico Tools
The expense incurred to purchase or manufacture the merchandise sold during a period.  

Cost Of Lease Financing   Dico Tools
A lease's internal rate of return.

Cost Of Limited Partner Capital   Dico Tools
The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital raised from limited partners.

Cost Principle   Dico Tools
The idea that transactions are recorded at their historical costs or exchange prices at the transaction date.  

Cost Records   Dico Tools
The records maintained by an investor of the prices at which securities transactions are made, so that capital gains can be computed.

Cost-benefit Ratio   Dico Tools
The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called the profitability index.

Cost-of-carry Market   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Futures contracts trade in a "cost-of-carry market" where the underlying commodity can be stored, insured, and converted into the future easily and inexpensively. Arbitrageurs, because of the ease of switching from the spot commodity to futures, will keep these markets in line with prevailing interest rates.

Cost-plus Contract   Dico Tools
A contract in which the selling price is based on the total cost of production plus a fixed percentage or fixed amount.

Cost-push Inflation   Dico Tools
Inflation caused by rising prices, usually from increased raw material or labor costs that push up the costs of production. Related: Demand-pull inflation.

Council Of Economic Advisers   Dico Tools
A group of economists appointed by the President of the United States to provide economic counsel and help prepare the president's budget presentation to Congress.

Counter Trade   Dico Tools
The exchange of goods for other goods rather than for cash; barter.

Countercyclical Stocks   Dico Tools
Stocks whose price tends to rise when the economy is in recession or the market is bearish, and vice versa.

Counterpart Items   Dico Tools
In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the current account. They arise through the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs, and revaluation of the various components of total reserves.

Counterparties   Dico Tools
The parties to an interest rate swap.

Counterparty   Dico Tools
Party on the other side of a trade or transaction.

Counterparty Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.

Country Beta   Dico Tools
Covariance of a national economy's rate of return and the rate of return of the world economy divided by the variance of the world economy.

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Country Economic Risk   Dico Tools
Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international financial transaction.

Country Financial Risk   Dico Tools
Centers around the ability of a national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.

Country Risk   Dico Tools
General level of political, financial, and economic uncertainty in a country affect which the value of loans or investments in that country.

Country Selection   Dico Tools
A type of active international management that measures the contribution to performance attributable to investing in the better-performing stock markets of the world.

Coupon Bond   Dico Tools
A bond featuring coupons that must be presented to the issuer in order to receive interest payments.

Coupon Bonds   Dico Tools
Unregistered bonds for which owners receive periodic interest payments by clipping a coupon from the bond and sending it to the issuer as evidence of ownership.  

Coupon Equivalent Yield   Dico Tools
True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

Coupon Pass   Dico Tools
Canvassing by the desk of primary dealers to determine the inventory and maturities of their Treasury securities. The desk then decides whether to buy or sell certain issues (coupons) in order to add or withdraw reserves.

Coupon Payments   Dico Tools
A bond's interest payments.

Coupon Rate   Dico Tools
In bonds, notes, or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually paid twice a year.

Coupon-equivalent Rate   Dico Tools
See: Eequivalent bond yield

Covenants   Dico Tools
Provisions in a bond indenture or preferred stock agreement that require the bond or preferred stock issuer to take certain specified actions (affirmative covenants) or to refrain from taking certain specified actions (negative covenants).

Coverage Initiated   Dico Tools
Usually refers to the fact that analysts begin following a particular security. This usually happens when there is enough trading in to warrant attention by the investment community.

Coverage Ratios   Dico Tools
Ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed-charge coverage ratio.

Covered Call   Dico Tools
A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.

Covered Call Writing Strategy   Dico Tools
A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor owns. See: Covered or hedge option strategies.

Covered Interest Arbitrage   Dico Tools
Occurs when a portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign currency and hedges the resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for dollars.

Covered Option   Dico Tools
Option position that is offset by an equal and opposite position in the underlying security. Antithesis of naked option.

Covered Or Hedge Option Strategies   Dico Tools
Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other, including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: Naked strategies

Covered Put   Dico Tools
A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put option.

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Covered Writer   Dico Tools
An investor who writes options only on stock that he or she owns, so that option positions may be collected.

CPA   Dico Tools
A special designation given to an accountant who has passed a national uniform examination and has met other certifying requirements; CPA certificates are issued and monitored by state boards of accountancy or similar agencies.

Cram-down Deal   Dico Tools
A merger in which stockholders are forced to accept undesirable terms, such as junk bonds instead of cash or equity, due to the absence of any better alternatives.

Cramdown   Dico Tools
The ability of the bankruptcy court to confirm a plan of reorganization over the objections of some classes of creditors.

Crawling Peg   Dico Tools
An automatic system for revising the exchange rate. It involves establishing a par value around which the rate can vary up to a given percent. The par value is revised regularly according to a formula determined by the authorities.

Credible Signal   Dico Tools
A signal that provides accurate information; a signal that can distinguish among senders.

Credit   Dico Tools
An entry on the right side of the account ledger. Also: Trust given to another person for future payment of a loan, credit card balance, etc.

Credit Analysis   Dico Tools
Evaluating information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: Default risk.

Credit Analyst   Dico Tools
  Credit Analyst: A financial professional who has expertise in evaluating the creditworthiness of individuals and businesses. Credit analysts determine the likelihood of a borrower being able to meet financial obligations and pay back a loan, often by reviewing the borrower's financial history and determining whether market conditions will be conducive to repayment. 

Credit Balance   Dico Tools
The surplus in a cash account with a broker after purchases have been paid for, plus the extra cash from the sale of securities.

Credit Bureau   Dico Tools
An agency that researches the credit history of consumers so that creditors can make decisions about granting of loans.

Credit Card Draft   Dico Tools
The part of the multiple-page credit form that is sent by the retailer to the credit card company for reimbursement of the stated amount.

Credit Counseling   Dico Tools
Professional guidance from trained credit counselors, who will work with an individual to help him or her get out of debt and establish a sound financial management plan.

Credit Enhancement   Dico Tools
Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds.

Credit Insurance   Dico Tools
Insurance against abnormal losses due to unpaid accounts receivable.

Credit Laws   Dico Tools
  Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended 1997) Federal law that covers the reporting of debt repayment information. It establishes when a credit reporting agency may provide a report to someone; states that obsolete information must be taken off (7 or 10 years); gives consumers the right to know what is in their credit report; requires that both a credit bureau and information provider (e.g., department store) have an obligation to correct incorrect information; gives consumers the right to dispute inaccurate information and add a 100-word statement to their report to explain accurate negative information; and gives consumers the right to know what credit bureau provided a report when they are turned down for credit. Equal Credit Opportunity Act (1974) Federal law that ensures that consumers are given an equal chance to receive credit. Prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender, race, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or receipt of public assistance. Lenders cannot ask about your plans for having children or refuse to consider consistently received alimony or child support payments as income. If you are denied credit, you have a legal right to know why. Fair Credit and Charge Card Disclosure Act (1989): A part of the Truth in Lending Act that mandates a box on credit card applications that describes key features and costs (i.e., APR, grace period for purchases, minimum finance charge, balance calculation method, annual fees, transaction fees for cash advances, and penalty fees such as over-thelimit fees and late payment fees). Fair Credit Billing Act (1975): Federal law that covers credit card billing problems. It applies to all open-end credit accounts (e.g., credit cards, overdraft checking). States that consumers should send a written billing error notice to the creditor within 60 days (after receipt of first bill containing an error); creditor must acknowledge in 30 days; creditor must investigate; and creditor may not damage a consumer’s credit rating while a dispute is pending. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (1978) Federal law that prohibits debt collectors from engaging in unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices when collecting debts. Collectors must send a written notice telling the amount owed and name of the creditor; collector may not contact consumer if he or she disputes in writing within 30 days (unless collector furnishes proof of the debt); collectors must identify themselves on the phone and can call only between 8 am and 9 pm unless a consumer agrees to another time; and collectors cannot call consumers at work if they are told not to. Truth in Lending Act (1968): Federal law that mandates disclosure of information about the cost of credit. Both the finance charge (i.e., all charges to borrow money, including interest) and the annual percentage rate or APR (i.e., the percentage cost of credit on a yearly basis) must be displayed prominently on forms and statements used by creditors. The law provides criminal penalties for willful violators, as well as civil remedies. It also protects you against unauthorized use of your credit card. If it is lost or stolen, the maximum amount you have to pay is $50.

Credit Period   Dico Tools
The length of time for which a firm's customer is granted credit.

Credit Rating   Dico Tools
An evaluation of an individual's or company's ability to repay obligations or its likelihood of not defaulting See: Creditworthiness.

Credit Report   Dico Tools
Financial information collected by businesses and used by lenders to determine creditworthiness of individuals. This information contains an individual’s personal and employment history, as well as payment history of all debts.

Credit Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on its obligations, or that the payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk.

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Credit Scoring   Dico Tools
A statistical technique that combines several financial characteristics to form a single score to represent a customer's creditworthiness.

Credit Spread   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Difference in the value of two options, when the value of the one sold exceeds the value of the one bought. One sells a "credit spread." Antithesis of a debit spread Related: Quality spread.

Credit Union   Dico Tools
A not-for-profit institution that is operated as a cooperative and offers financial services such as low-interest loans, to its members.

Credit Unions   Dico Tools
Not-for-profit cooperatives of members with some type of common bond (e.g., employer) that provide a wide array of financial services, often at a lower cost than banks.

Credit Watch   Dico Tools
A warning by a bond rating firm indicating that a company's credit rating may change after the current review is concluded.

Crediting Rate   Dico Tools
The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.

Creditor   Dico Tools
A person to whom a debt is owed.

Creditor's Committee   Dico Tools
A group representing firms that have claims on a company facing bankruptcy or extreme financial difficulty.

Creeping Tender Offer   Dico Tools
The process by which a group attempting to circumvent certain provisions of the Williams Act gradually acquires shares of a target company in the open market.

Cross Hedging   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Hedging with a futures contract that is different from the underlying being hedged. Use of a hedging instrument different from the security being hedged. Hedging instruments are usually selected to have the highest price correlation to the underlying.

Cross Rates   Dico Tools
The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates that are both expressed in terms of a third currency. Foreign exchange rate between two currencies other than the U.S. dollar, the currency in which most exchanges are usually quoted.

Cross-border Risk   Dico Tools
Describes the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.

Cross-default   Dico Tools
A provision under which default on one debt obligation triggers default on another debt obligation.

Cross-holdings   Dico Tools
The holding by one corporation of shares in another firm. One needs to allow for cross-holdings when aggregating capitalizations of firms. Ignoring cross-holdings leads to double-counting.

Cross-sectional Approach   Dico Tools
A statistical methodology applied to a set of firms at a particular time.

Cross-share Holdings   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Corporations' or governments' equity share ownership in another corporation's shares.

Crossed Market   Dico Tools
In the context of general equities, happens when the inside market consists of a highest bid price that is higher than the lowest offer price. See: Overlap the market.

Crossed Trade   Dico Tools
The prohibited practice of offsetting buy and sell orders without recording the trade on the exchange, thus not allowing other traders to take advantage of a more favorable price.

Crossover Rate   Dico Tools
The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.

Crowd Trading   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Group of exchange members with a defined area of function tending to congregate around a trading post pending execution of orders. Includes specialists, floor traders, odd-lot dealers, and other brokers as well as smaller groups with specialized functions. See: Priority.

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Crowding Out   Dico Tools
Heavy federal borrowing that drives interest rates up and prevents businesses and consumers from borrowing when they would like to.

Crown Jewel   Dico Tools
A particularly profitable or otherwise particularly valuable corporate unit or asset of a firm. Often used in risk arbitrage. The most desirable entities within a diversified corporation as measured by asset value, earning power, and business prospects; in takeover attempts, these entities typically are the main objective of the acquirer and may be sold by a takeover target to make the rest of the company less attractive. See: Scorched earth policy.

CTA   Dico Tools
See: Cumulative Translation Adjustment

Cum Dividend   Dico Tools
With dividend; said of a stock whose buyer is eligible to receive a declared dividend. Stocks are usually "cum dividend" for trades made on or before the fifth trading day preceding the record date, when the register of eligible holders is closed for that dividend period. Antithesis of ex-dividend.

Cum Rights   Dico Tools
With rights.

Cumulative Abnormal Return   Dico Tools
Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock (systematic risk multiplied by the realized market return) and the actual return often used to evaluate the impact of news ona stock price.

Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks   Dico Tools
Stands for Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks, Oppenheimer & Company's Dutch Auction preferred stock product.

Cumulative Dividend Feature   Dico Tools
A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid in full before any common dividend payment is made.

Cumulative Preferred Stock   Dico Tools
Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely dividend payments. Related: Non-cumulative preferred stock.

Cumulative Probability Distribution   Dico Tools
A function that shows the probability that the random variable will attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.

Cumulative Translation Adjustment   Dico Tools
An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The C.T.A. account is required under the FASB No. 52 rule.

Cumulative Voting   Dico Tools
A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of votes is equal to the number of shares held times the number of candidates.

Cumulative-dividend Preference   Dico Tools
The rights of preferred stockholders to receive current dividends plus all dividends in arrears before common stockholders receive any dividends. current assets: Cash and other assets that may reasonably be expected to be converted to cash within a year or during the normal operating cycle.

Currency Arbitrage   Dico Tools
Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.

Currency Basket   Dico Tools
The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.

Currency Future   Dico Tools
A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.

Currency Futures   Dico Tools
  Currency Futures: A transferable futures contract that specifies the price at which a specified currency can be bought or sold at a future date. 

Currency Hedge   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to international equities. Hedging technique to guard against foreign exchange fluctuations (i.e., short Euro l00 mm when holding a long position of Euro l00 mm in stocks).

Currency In Circulation   Dico Tools
Paper money, coins, and demand deposits that constitute all the money circulating in the economy.

Currency Option   Dico Tools
An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.

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Currency Overvaluation   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to international equities: (1) consideration that a currency is overvalued if private demand for the currency at the going exchange rate is less than total private supply (i.e., central banks are buying up the difference, supporting the value of the currency through foreign exchange intervention); (2) currency value exceeding purchasing power parity.

Currency Risk   Dico Tools
Related: Exchange rate risk

Currency Risk Sharing   Dico Tools
An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying transaction.

Currency Selection   Dico Tools
Asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in different currencies.

Currency Swap   Dico Tools
An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.

Current Account   Dico Tools
Net flow of goods, services, and unilateral transactions (gifts) between countries.

Current Assets   Dico Tools
Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.

Current Coupon   Dico Tools
A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk.

Current Income   Dico Tools
Money that is routinely received from investments in the form of dividends, interest, and other income sources.

Current Issue   Dico Tools
In Treasury securities, the most recently auctioned issue. Trading is more active in current issues than in off-the-run issues.

Current Liabilities   Dico Tools
Amount owed for salaries, interest, accounts payable and other debts due within 1 year.

Current Market Value   Dico Tools
The value of a client's portfolio at today's market price, as listed in a brokerage statement.

Current Maturity   Dico Tools
Current time to maturity on an outstanding debt instrument.

Current Production Rate   Dico Tools
The highest interest rate permissible on current Government National Mortgage Association, mortgage-backed securities.

Current Rate Method   Dico Tools
The translation of all foreign currency balance sheet and income statement items at the current exchange rate.

Current Ratio   Dico Tools
A measure of the liquidity of a business; equal to current assets divided by current liabilities.

Current Yield   Dico Tools
For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond.

Current-coupon Issues   Dico Tools
Related: Benchmark issues

Current-dividend Preference   Dico Tools
The right of preferred shareholders to receive current dividends before common shareholders receive dividends.

Current/noncurrent Method   Dico Tools
The translation of all of a foreign subsidiary's current assets and liabilities into home currency at the current exchange rate while noncurrent assets and liabilities are translated at the historical exchange rate; that is, the rate in effect at the time the asset was acquired or the liability incurred.

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Cushion Bonds   Dico Tools
High-coupon bonds that sell at only at a moderate premium because they are callable at a price below that at which a comparable noncallable bond would sell. Cushion bonds offer considerable downside protection in a falling market.

Cushion Theory   Dico Tools
The theory that a stock with many short positions taken in it will rise, because these positions must be covered by the stock.

CUSIP   Dico Tools
See: Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures

CUSIP Number   Dico Tools
Unique number given to a security to distinguish it from other stocks and registered bonds. See: Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures.

Custodial Fees   Dico Tools
Fees charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor.

Custodian Bank   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to international equities. Bank or other financial institution that keeps custody of stock certificates and other assets of a mutual fund, individual, or corporate client. See: Depository Trust Company (DTC)

Customary Payout Ratios   Dico Tools
A range of payout ratios that is typical according to an analysis of comparable firms.

Customer Picking Prices   Dico Tools
Customer is firm on price and has set the price at which to transact.

Customer's Loan Consent   Dico Tools
Agreement signed by a margin customer that allows a broker to borrow margined securities up to the level of the customer's debit balance to help cover other customers' short positions.

Customers' Net Debit Balance   Dico Tools
The total amount of credit given by NYSE member firms to finance customers purchasing securities.

Customized Benchmarks   Dico Tools
A benchmark that is designed to meet a client's requirements and long-term objectives.

Customs Union   Dico Tools
An agreement by two or more countries to erect a common external tariff and to abolish restrictions on trade among members.

Cutoff Point   Dico Tools
The lowest rate of return acceptable on investments.

Cyclical Stock   Dico Tools
Stock that tends to rise quickly when the economy turns up and fall quickly when the economy turns down. Examples are housing, automobiles, and paper.

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