Accounting & Investement Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

V   Dico Tools
Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicate that it is when-issued or when-distributed.

V Formation   Dico Tools
A technical chart pattern that follows a letter V form, indicating that the security price has bottomed out, and is now in a bullish trend.

Valuation   Dico Tools
Determination of the value of a company's stock based on earnings and the market value of assets.

Valuation Reserve   Dico Tools
An allowance to provide for changes in the value of a company's assets, such as depreciation.

Value Additivity Principal   Dico Tools
When the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Or, the principle that the net present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.

Value Broker   Dico Tools
A discount broker whose rates are a percentage of the dollar value of each transaction.

Value Date   Dico Tools
In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, the delivery date of funds traded. For spot transactions, it is normally on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon. In the case of a forward foreign exchange trade, it is the future date.

Value Dating   Dico Tools
When value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks.

Value Line Investment Survey   Dico Tools
A proprietary service that ranks stocks for timeliness and safety.

Value Manager   Dico Tools
A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and to sell them at or in excess of that value. Often a value stock is one with a low price-to-book value ratio. Opposite of to growth stock.

Value-added Tax   Dico Tools
Method of indirect taxation that levies a tax is at each stage of production on the value added at that specific stage.

Value-at-risk Model   Dico Tools
Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.

Vancouver Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
A securities and options exchange in Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada), specializing in venture capital companies.

Vanilla Issue   Dico Tools
A security issue that has no unusual features.

VaR   Dico Tools
See: Value-at-risk model

Variable   Dico Tools
An element in a model. For example, in the model RS&Pt+1 = a + b Tbillt + et, where RS&Pt+1 is the return on the S&P in month t+1 and Tbill is the Tbill return at month t, both RS&P and Tbill are "variables" because they change through time; i.e., they are not constant.

Variable Annuities   Dico Tools
Investment contracts whose issuer pays a periodic amount linked to the investment performance of an underlying portfolio.

Variable Cost   Dico Tools
A cost that is directly proportional to the volume of output produced. When production is zero, the variable cost is equal to zero.

Variable Interest Rate   Dico Tools
See: Adjustable rate

Variable Life Insurance Policy   Dico Tools
A whole life insurance policy that provides a death benefit dependent on the insured's portfolio market value at the time of death. Typically the company invests premiums in common stocks, so variable life policies are referred to as equity-linked policies.

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Variable Rated Demand Bond   Dico Tools
Floating-rate bond that periodically can be sold back to the issuer.

Variable-price Security   Dico Tools
A security that sells at a fluctuating market-determined price stocks and bonds are example.

Variable-rate CDs   Dico Tools
Short-term certificate of deposits that pay interest periodically on roll dates. On each roll date, the coupon on the CD is adjusted to reflect current market rates.

Variable-rate Demand Note   Dico Tools
A note that is payable on demand and bears interest tied to a money market rate.

Variable-rate Loan   Dico Tools
Loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates depending on a base interest rate, such as the prime rate or LIBOR.

Variance   Dico Tools
A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

Variance Rule   Dico Tools
Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to satisfy a TBA trade. For Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac pass-through securities, the accepted variance is plus or minus 2.499999 % per million of the par value of the T.B.A. quantity.

Variance-minimization Approach To Tracking   Dico Tools
An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to estimate the variance of the tracking error.

Variation Margin   Dico Tools
An additional required deposit to bring an investor's equity account up to the initial margin level when the balance falls below the maintenance margin requirement.

Veblen Goods   Dico Tools
  Veblen goods: Goods that are perceived to be exclusive as long as prices remain high or increase. Veblen goods get their name from economist Thorstein Veblen, who was one of the first to look into and write about conspicuous consumption and the concept of seeking status through consumption. Veblen goods are often referred to as "status symbols". High-status items such as luxury cars, expensive shoes or pricey watches remain appealing to certain consumers as long as prices remain high or increase. A decrease in the price of a Veblen good could cause it to become less exclusive, which may reduce consumers' fondness for it.

Velda Sue   Dico Tools
Stands for Venture Enhancement and Loan Development Administration for Smaller Undercapitalized Enterprises. A federal agency that buys and pools small business loans made by banks, and then issues securities that are bought by large institutional investors.

Velocity   Dico Tools
The number of times a dollar is spent, or turns over, in a specific period of time. Velocity affects the amount of economic activity generated by a given money supply.

Vendor   Dico Tools
Seller or supplier.

Venture Capital   Dico Tools
An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but does not have access to capital markets. Type of financing sought by early-stage companies seeking to grow rapidly.

Venture Capital Limited Partnership   Dico Tools
A partnership between a start-up company and a brokerage firm or entrepreneurial company that provides capital for the new business in return for stock in the company and a share of the profits.

Vertical Acquisition   Dico Tools
Buying or taking over a firm in the same industry in which the acquired firm and the acquiring firm represent different steps in the production process.

Vertical Analysis   Dico Tools
Dividing each expense item in the income statement of a given year by net sales to identify expense items that rise more quickly or more slowly than a change in sales.

Vertical Analysis Of Financial Statements   Dico Tools
A technique for analyzing the relationships between items on an income statement or balance sheet by expressing all items as percentages.

Vertical Line Charting   Dico Tools
A form of technical charting that shows the high, low, and closing prices of a stock or a market on each day on one vertical line with the closing price indicated by a short horizontal mark.

Vertical Merger   Dico Tools
When one firm acquires another firm that is in the same industry but at another stage in the production cycle. For example, the firm being acquired serves as a supplier to the firm doing the acquiring.

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Vertical Spread   Dico Tools
Simultaneous purchase and sale of two options that differ only in their exercise price. See: Horizontal spread.

Vest   Dico Tools
Become applicable or exercisable. A term mainly used on the context of employee stock ownership or option programs. Employees might be given equity in a firm but they must stay with the firm for a number of years before they are entitled to the full equity. This is a vesting provision. It provides incentive for the employee to perform.

Veterans Administration (VA) Mortgage   Dico Tools
A home mortgage loan granted by a lending institution to U.S. veterans and guaranteed by the Veterans Administration.

Vienna Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
One of the world's oldest exchanges, which accounts for approximately 50% of Austrian stock transactions; the balance are traded OTC.

Virtual Currency Option   Dico Tools
A new option contract introduced by the PHLX in 1994 that is settled in U.S. dollars rather than in the underlying currency. These options are also called 3-Ds (dollar-denominated delivery).

Visible Supply   Dico Tools
New muni bond issues scheduled to come to market within the next 30 days.

Volatility   Dico Tools
A measure of risk based on the standard deviation of the asset return. Volatility is a variable that appears in option pricing formulas, where it denotes the volatility of the underlying asset return from now to the expiration of the option. There are volatility indexes. Such as a scale of 1-9; a higher rating means higher risk.

Volatility Arbitrage   Dico Tools
  volatility arbitrage: Trading strategies that attempt to exploit differences between the forecasted future volatility of an asset and the implied volatility of options based on that asset. Because options pricing is determined by the volatility of the underlying asset, if the forecasted and implied volatilities differ, there will be a discrepancy between the expected price of the option and its actual market price.  A volatility arbitrage strategy is generally implemented through a delta neutral portfolio consisting of an option and its underlying asset. A long position in an option combined with a short position in the underlying asset is equivalent to a long volatility position. This strategy will be profitable if the realized volatility on the underlying asset eventually proves to be higher than the implied volatility on the option when the trade was initiated. Conversely, a short position in an option combined with a long position in the underlying asset is equivalent to a short volatility position, which will be profitable if the realized volatility on the underlying asset is ultimately lower than the option's implied volatility.  

Volatility Risk   Dico Tools
The risk in the value of options portfolios due to the unpredictable changes in the volatility of the underlying asset.

Volume   Dico Tools
This is the daily number of shares of a security that change hands between a buyer and a seller.

Volume Deleted   Dico Tools
A note appearing on the consolidated tape when the tape is running behind under heavy trading, meaning that only the stock symbol and price will be shown for trades under 5000 shares.

Volume Discount   Dico Tools
A reduction in price based on the purchase of a large quantity.

Voluntary Accumulation Plan   Dico Tools
Arrangement allowing shareholders of a mutual fund to purchase shares over a period of time on a regular basis, and in so doing take advantage of dollar cost averaging.

Voluntary Bankruptcy   Dico Tools
The legal proceeding that follows a petition of bankruptcy.

Voluntary Liquidation   Dico Tools
Liquidation proceedings that are supported by a company's shareholders.

Voluntary Plan   Dico Tools
A pension plan supported partially by the employee by pension contributions deducted from each paycheck.

Voting Certificate   Dico Tools
Certificates issued by a voting trust to stockholders in exchange for their common stock, which represent all the rights of common stock except voting rights.

Voting Rights   Dico Tools
The right to vote on matters that are put to a vote of security holders. For example the right to vote for directors.

Voting Stock   Dico Tools
The shares in a corporation that entitle the shareholder to vote.

Voting Trust Certificate   Dico Tools
A trust in which control of a corporation is given to a few individuals, usually to support reorganization of a corporation without interference.

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VRDB   Dico Tools
See: Variable-rated demand bond

VSOE   Dico Tools
Vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE): A method for determining the individual value of each item within a contract in order to recognize partial revenue before the entire contract is fulfilled.

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