Accounting & Investement Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

R   Dico Tools
Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the stock has rights.

R Square   Dico Tools
Square of the correlation coefficient. The proportion of the variability in one series that can be explained by the variability of one or more other series a regression model. A measure of the quality of fit. 100% R-square means perfect predictability.

Radar Alert   Dico Tools
Close monitoring of trading patterns in a company's stock by senior managers to uncover unusual buying activity that might signal a takeover attempt. See: Shark watcher.

Raider   Dico Tools
Individual or corporate investor who intends to take control of a company (often ostensibly for greenmail) by buying a controlling interest in its stock and installing new management. Raiders who accumulate 5% or more of the outstanding shares in the target company must report their purchases to the SEC, the exchange of listing, and the target itself. See: takeover.

Rainmaker   Dico Tools
A valuable employee or manager who buys new business to a financial services company and thus generates income.

Rally (recovery)   Dico Tools
An upward movement of prices. Opposite of reaction.

RAM   Dico Tools
See: Reverse-annuity mortgage

Random Variable   Dico Tools
A function that assigns a real number to each and every possible outcome of a random experiment.

Random Walk   Dico Tools
Theory that stock price changes from day to day are accidental or haphazard; changes are independent of each other and have the same probability distribution. Many believers in the random walk theory believe that it is impossible to outperform the market consistently without taking additional risk.

Randomized Strategy   Dico Tools
A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a chance element that is designed to confound the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices.

Range   Dico Tools
The high and low prices, or high and low bids and offers, recorded during a specified time.

Range Forward   Dico Tools
A forward exchange rate contract that places upper and lower bounds on the future cost of foreign exchange.

RAP   Dico Tools
See: Regulatory accounting procedures

Rate Anticipation Swaps   Dico Tools
An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target portfolio duration, given the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates.

Rate Base   Dico Tools
The value of a regulated public utility and its operations as defined by its regulators and on which the company is allowed to earn a particular rate of return.

Rate Covenant   Dico Tools
A provision governing a municipal revenue project financed by a revenue bond issue, which establishes the rates to be charged users of the new facility.

Rate Lock   Dico Tools
An agreement between the mortgage banker and the loan applicant guaranteeing a specified interest rate for a designated period, usually 60 days.

Rate Of Exchange   Dico Tools
See: Exchange Rate

Rate Of Interest   Dico Tools
The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

Rate Of Return   Dico Tools
Also called the “yield,” this is the return on an investment expressed as a percentage of its cost (e.g., $3 annual return divided by $24 price per share = .125 or a 12.5% rate of return).

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Rate Of Return Ratios   Dico Tools
Ratios that measure the profitability of a firm in relation to various measures of investment in the firm.

Rate Risk   Dico Tools
In banking, the risk that profits may drop or losses occur because a rise in interest rates forces up the cost of funding fixed-rate loans or other fixed-rate assets.

Ratings   Dico Tools
An evaluation of credit quality of a company's debt issue by Moody's, S&P, and Fitch Investors Service. Investors and analysts use ratings to assess the riskness of an investment.

Ratio Analysis   Dico Tools
A way of expressing relationships between a firm's accounting numbers and their trends over time that analysts use to establish values and evaluate risks.

Ratio Writer   Dico Tools
An option writer who does not own the number of shares required to cover the call options he or she writes.

Rational Expectations   Dico Tools
The idea that people rationally anticipate the future and respond today to what they see ahead. This concept was pioneered by Nobel Laureate, Robert E. Lucas, Jr.

Raw Material   Dico Tools
Materials a manufacturer converts into a finished product.

Raw Material Supply Agreement   Dico Tools
As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a specified amount per period of a specified raw material.

Reachback   Dico Tools
The ability of a tax shelter or limited partnership to deduct certain costs and expenses at the end of the year that were incurred throughout the entire year.

Reaction   Dico Tools
A decline in prices following an advance. Opposite of rally.

Reading The Tape   Dico Tools
Judging the performance of stocks by monitoring changes in price as they are displayed on the ticker tape.

Real   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. (1) natural, (2) not dividend roll-or program trading-related; (3) not tax-related. "Real" indications have three major repercussions: a) pricing will be more favorable to the other side of the trade since an investment bank is not committing any capital; b) price pressure will be stronger if real since a natural buyer/seller may have information leading to his decision or more behind it, and c) an uptick may be required for the trader to transact if the indication is not real and the trader has no long position.

Real Accounts   Dico Tools
Accounts that are not closed to a zero balance at the end of each accounting period; permanent accounts appearing on the balance sheet.

Real Assets   Dico Tools
Identifiable assets, such as land and buildings, equipment, patents, and trademarks, as distinguished from a financial investment.

Real Capital   Dico Tools
Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial securities, and real estate.

Real Cash Flow   Dico Tools
Income expressed in current purchasing power terms.

Real Estate   Dico Tools
A piece of land and whatever physical property is on it.

Real Estate Appraisal   Dico Tools
An estimate of the value of property using various methods.

Real Estate Broker   Dico Tools
An intermediary who receives a commission for arranging and facilitating the sale of a property for a buyer or a seller.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)   Dico Tools
REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments. A REIT is similar to a closed-end mutual fund.

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Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit   Dico Tools
A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages secured by any type of real property and can issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

Real Exchange Rates   Dico Tools
Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.

Real Gain Or Loss   Dico Tools
A gain or loss adjusted for increasing prices by an inflation index such as the CPI.

Real Income   Dico Tools
The income of an individual, group, or country adjusted for inflation.

Real Interest Rate   Dico Tools
The rate of interest excluding the effect of expected inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate adjusted for expected inflation.

Real Market   Dico Tools
The bid and offer prices at which a dealer could execute the desired quantity of shares. Quotes in the brokers market.

Real Property   Dico Tools
Land plus all other property that is in some way attached to the land.

Real Rate Of Return   Dico Tools
The percentage return on some investments that has been adjusted for inflation.

Real Time   Dico Tools
A real-time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy). Different from a delayed quote, which shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.

Realistic On Price   Dico Tools
In trading, and indication that the size under consideration requires price give, especially with illiquid stocks. See: Takes price.

Realized Compound Yield   Dico Tools
Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest rate at the time of their receipt and held thus until the bond matures.

Realized Gains And Losses   Dico Tools
Gains and losses resulting from the sale of securities in an arm's length transaction.

Realized Profit   Dico Tools
A capital gain or loss on securities held in a portfolio that has become actual by the sale or other type of surrender of one or many securities.

Realized Return   Dico Tools
The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

Realtor   Dico Tools
A specific designation given to members of real estate firms affiliated with the National Association of Realtors (NAR) who are trained and licensed to assist clients in buying and selling real estate.

Rebalancing   Dico Tools
Realigning the proportions of assets in a portfolio as needed.

Rebate   Dico Tools
Negotiated return of a portion of the interest earned by the lender of stock to a short seller. When a stock is sold short, the seller borrows stock from an owner or custodian and delivers it to the buyer. The proceeds are delivered to the lender. The borrower, who is short, often wants a rebate of the interest earned on the proceeds under the lender's control, especially when the stock can be borrowed from many sources. Note: The seller must pay the lender any dividends paid out or, in the case of bonds, interest that accrues daily during the term of the loan.

Recapitalization Proposal   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Plan by a target company to restructure its capitalization (debt and equity) in a way to ward off a hostile or potential suitor.

Recapture   Dico Tools
A provision in a contract that allows one party to recover (recapture) some degree of possession of an asset, such as a share of the profits derived from some property.

Receivables   Dico Tools
Claims for money, goods, or services.

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Receivables Balance Fractions   Dico Tools
The percentage of a month's sales that remains uncollected (and part of accounts receivable) at the end of succeeding months.

Receivables Turnover Ratio   Dico Tools
Total operating revenues divided by average receivables. Used to measure how effectively a firm is managing its accounts receivable.

Receive Versus Payment   Dico Tools
An instruction that only cash will be accepted in exchange for delivery of securities.

Receiver   Dico Tools
A bankruptcy practitioner appointed by secured creditors to oversee the repayment of debts.

Receiver's Certificate   Dico Tools
A debt instrument issued by a receiver and serving as a lien on the property, which provides funding to continue operations or to protect assets in receivership.

Recession   Dico Tools
A temporary downturn in economic activity, usually indicated by two consecutive quarters of a falling GDP.

Reclamation   Dico Tools
A claim for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security that has been previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other irregularities in the delivery and settlement process.

Record Date   Dico Tools
(1) Date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend. For example, a firm might declare a dividend on Nov. 1, payable Dec. 1 to holders of record Nov. 15. Once a trade is executed, an investor becomes the "owner of record" on settlement, which currently takes five business days for securities and one business day for mutual funds. Stocks trade ex-dividend the fourth day before the record date, since the seller will still be the owner of record and is thus entitled to the dividend. (2) The date that determines who is entitled to payment of principal and interest due to be paid on a security. The record date for most MBS is the last day of the month, although the last day on which an MBS may be presented for the transfer is the last business day of the month. The record dates for CMOs and asset-backed securities vary with each issue.

Recoupling   Dico Tools
When returns on asset classes revert back to their historical or traditional patterns of correlation. This is in contrast to decoupling, which occurs when asset classes break away from their traditional correlations. Recoupling occurs after a period in which the asset classes have been generating a return that shows little correlation. 

Recourse   Dico Tools
The right to seek payment on a discounted note from the payee if the maker defaults.

Recovery   Dico Tools
The use of depreciation of assets to offset costs; or a new period of rising securities prices after a period of declining security values.

Recovery Period   Dico Tools
The time period designated by Congress for depreciating business assets.

Red Herring   Dico Tools
A preliminary prospectus providing information required by the SEC. It excludes the offering price and the coupon of the new issue.

Red-lining   Dico Tools
Illegal discrimination in making loans, insurance coverage, or other financial services available to people or property in certain areas because of poor economic conditions, high levels of fraudulent transaction, or frequent defaults.

Redeemable   Dico Tools
Eligible for redemption under the terms of an indenture.

Redemption   Dico Tools
Repayment of a debt security or preferred stock issue, at or before maturity, at par or at a premium price.

Redemption Charge   Dico Tools
The commission a mutual fund charges an investor who is redeeming shares. For example, a 2% redemption charge (also called a back end load) on the sale of shares valued at $1000 will result in payment of $980 (or 98% of the value) to the investor. This charge may decline or be eliminated as shares are held for longer time periods.

Redemption Cushion   Dico Tools
The percentage by which the conversion value of a convertible security exceeds the redemption price (strike price).

Redemption Date   Dico Tools
The date on which a bond matures or is redeemed.

Redemption Or Call   Dico Tools
Right of the issuer to force holders on a certain date to redeem their convertibles for cash. The objective usually is to force holders to convert into common prior to the redemption deadline. Typically, an issue is not called away unless the conversion price is 15%-25% below the current level of the common. An exception might occur when an issuer's tax rate is high, and the issuer could replace it with debt securities at a lower after-tax cost.

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Redemption Price   Dico Tools
See: Call price

Redemption Value   Dico Tools
The price, stated in the contract, to be paid by a company to repurchase preferred stock.

Rediscount   Dico Tools
To discount short-term negotiable debt instruments for a second time, after they have been discounted with a bank.

Reduction-Option Loan (ROL)   Dico Tools
A hybrid of a fixed-rate and adjustable-rate mortgage. An ROL the borrower to match the current mortgage rate, which then becomes fixed for the rest of the term. This reduction is usually allowed if rates drop more than 2% in a year.

Reference Rate   Dico Tools
A benchmark interest rate (such as LIBOR) used to specify conditions of an interest rate swap or an interest rate agreement.

Refinancing   Dico Tools
An extension and/or increase in amount of existing debt.

Reflation   Dico Tools
Government monetary action that causes a reversal of deflation.

Refund   Dico Tools
To retire existing bond issues through the sale of a new bond issue, usually to reduce the interest rate being paid.

Refundable   Dico Tools
Eligible for refunding under the terms of a bond indenture.

Refunded Bond   Dico Tools
Also called a prerefunded bond, a bond that originally may have been issued as a general obligation or revenue bond but that is now secured by an escrow fund consisting entirely of direct U.S. government obligations that are sufficient for paying the bondholders.

Refunding   Dico Tools
Redeeming a bond with proceeds received from issuing lower-cost debt obligations with ranking equal to or superior to the debt to be redeemed.

Refunding Escrow Deposits   Dico Tools
A financial instrument involving a forward purchase contract that obligates investors to buy bonds at a certain rate when issued. The future date coincides with the first optional call date on an existing high-rate bond. In the interim, investors' money is invested in secondary market Treasury bonds. The Treasuries mature around the call date on the existing bonds, providing the money to buy the new issue and redeem the old one.

Regional Bank   Dico Tools
A bank operating in a specific region of the country, taking deposits and offering loans.

Regional Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund that invests in a specific geographic area overseas, such as Asia or Europe.

Regional Stock Exchanges   Dico Tools
Organized national securities exchanges located outside of New York City and registered with the SEC They include: the Boston, Cincinnati, Intermountain (Salt Lake City-dormant, owned by COMEX), Midwest (Chicago), Pacific (Los Angeles and San Francisco), Philadelphia (Philadelphia and Miami), and Spokane (local mining and Canadian issues, non-reporting trades) Stock Exchanges.

Registered Bond   Dico Tools
A bond whose issuer records ownership and interest payments. Differs from a bearer bond, which is traded without record of ownership and whose possession is the only evidence of ownership.

Registered Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds for which the names and addresses of the bondholders are kept on file by the issuing company.

Registered Check   Dico Tools
A check issued and guaranteed by a bank for a customer who provides funds for payment of the check.

Registered Company   Dico Tools
A company that is listed with the SEC after submission of a required statement and compliance with disclosure requirements.

Registered Competitive Market Maker   Dico Tools
An NASD-registered dealer who acts as a market maker for a designated over-the-counter stock by buying and selling that stock to maintain stability.

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Registered Equity Market Maker   Dico Tools
Member firm of the American Stock Exchange registered as a trader to make stabilizing trades for its own account in particular securities.

Registered Investment Adviser   Dico Tools
SEC-registered individual or firm that substantiates completion of education and work experience in the field, and pays an annual membership fee.

Registered Investment Company   Dico Tools
An investment firm which is registered with the SEC and complies with certain stated legal requirements.

Registered Options Trader   Dico Tools
An American Stock Exchange specialist who monitors a certain group of options to help maintain a fair and orderly market.

Registered Representative   Dico Tools
A person registered with the CFTC who is employed by and solicits business for a commission house or futures commission merchant.

Registered Retirement Savings Plan   Dico Tools
Tax-sheltered retirement plan for Canadian citizens, much like an American IRA.

Registered Secondary Offering   Dico Tools
A reoffering of a large block of securities, previously publicly issued, by the holder of a large portion of some corporation through an investment firm.

Registered Security   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Securities whose owner's name is recorded on the books of the issuer or the issuer's agent, called a registrar.

Registered Trader   Dico Tools
A member of the exchange who executes frequent trades for his or her own account.

Registrar   Dico Tools
Financial institution appointed to record issue and ownership of company securities.

Registration   Dico Tools
In the securities market describes process set up pursuant to the Securities Exchange Acts of 1933 and 1934 whereby securities that are to be sold to the public are reviewed by the SEC.

Registration Statement   Dico Tools
A legal document filed with the SEC to register securities for public offering that details the purpose of the proposed public offering. The statement outlines financial details, a history of the company's operations and management, and other facts of importance to potential buyers. See: Registration.

Regression   Dico Tools
A mathematical technique used to explain and/or predict. The general form is Y = a + bX + u, where Y is the variable that we are trying to predict; X is the variable that we are using to predict Y, a is the intercept; b is the slope, and u is the regression residual. The a and b are chosen in a way to minimize the squared sum of the residuals. The ability to fit or explain is measured by the R-square.

Regression Analysis   Dico Tools
A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables.

Regression Equation   Dico Tools
An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables.

Regression Toward The Mean   Dico Tools
The tendency that a random variable will ultimately have a value closer to its mean value.

Regressive Tax   Dico Tools
A tax system that provides that average tax rates decrease with increases in individuals' income brackets.

Regular Settlement   Dico Tools
Transaction in which a stock contract is settled and delivered on the fifth full business day following the date of the transaction (trade date). In Japan, regular settlement occurs three business days following the trade date; in London, two weeks following the trade date (at times, three weeks); in France, once per month.

Regular Way Settlement   Dico Tools
In the money and bond markets, the standard basis on which some security trades are settled is that the delivery of the securities purchased is made against payment in Fed funds on the day following the transaction.

Regulated Commodities   Dico Tools
The group of registered commodity futures and options contracts traded on organized U.S. futures exchanges.

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Regulated Investment Company   Dico Tools
An investment company allowed to pass capital gains, dividends, and interest earned on fund investments directly to its shareholders so that it is taxed only at the personal level, and double taxation is avoided.

Regulation A   Dico Tools
A Federal Reserve Board regulation that exempts small public offerings, valued at less than $1.5MM from most registration requirements with the SEC.

Regulation D   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board regulation that currently requires member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from foreign offices of other banks over a 28-day averaging period. Regulation D has been merged with Regulation M.

Regulation G   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board regulation of lenders other than commercial banks, brokers, or dealers that provide credit for the purchase of or carrying of securities.

Regulation M   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board regulation that currently requires member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from their foreign branches over a 28-day averaging period. Reg M has also required member banks to hold reserves against Eurodollars lent by their foreign branches to domestic corporations for domestic purposes.

Regulation Q   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board regulation imposing caps on the rates that banks may pay on savings and time deposits. Currently time deposits with a denomination of $100,000 or more are exempt from Reg Q.

Regulation T   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board regulation that deals with granting credit to customers by securities brokers, dealers, and exchange member as far as initial margin requirements and securities that are covered under the rules.

Regulation U   Dico Tools
Federal Reserve Board limit on how much credit a bank can allow a customer for the purchase and carrying of margin securities.

Regulatory Accounting Procedures   Dico Tools
Accounting principles required by the FHLB that allow S&Ls to elect annually to defer gains and losses on the sale of assets and amortize these deferrals over the average life of the asset sold.

Regulatory Pricing Risk   Dico Tools
Risk that arises when insurance companies are subject to regulation of the premium rates that can they charge.

Regulatory Surplus   Dico Tools
The surplus as measured using regulatory accounting principles (RAP), which may allow the nonmarket valuation of assets or liabilities and which may be materially different from economic surplus.

Rehypothecation   Dico Tools
Pledging to banks by securities brokers of the amount in customers' margin account as collateral for broker loans, which are used to cover margin loans to customers for margin purchases and selling short.

Reimbursement   Dico Tools
Payment made to someone for out-of-pocket expenses has incurred.

Reinstatement   Dico Tools
The restoration of an insurance policy after it has lapsed for nonpayment of premiums.

Reinsurance   Dico Tools
The spreading of risk and division of client premiums among insurance companies allowing the sharing of the burden of a large risk.

Reinvestment Privilege   Dico Tools
A shareholder's right to reinvest dividends and buy more shares in the corporation or mutual fund.

Reinvestment Rate   Dico Tools
The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a debt security can be reinvested over the life of that security.

Reinvestment Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that proceeds received in the future may have to be reinvested at a lower potential interest rate.

Reinvoicing Center   Dico Tools
A central financial subsidiary an MNC uses to reduce transaction exposure by billing all home country exports in the home currency and reinvoicing to each operating affiliate in that affiliate's local currency. It can also be used as a netting center.

REIT   Dico Tools
See: Real Estate Investment Trust

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Rejection   Dico Tools
Refusal by a bank to grant credit, usually because of the applicant's financial history, or refusal to accept a security presented to complete a trade, usually because of a lack of proper endorsements or violation of rules of a firm.

Relative Fair Market Value Method   Dico Tools
A way of allocating a lump-sum or "basket" purchase price to the individual assets acquired based on their respective market values.

Relative Purchasing Power Parity   Dico Tools
Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between the two countries' currencies.

Relative Strength   Dico Tools
Movement of a stock price over the past year as compared to a market index (like the S&P 500). A value below 1.0 means the stock shows relative weakness in price movement (underperformed the market); a value above 1.0 means the stock shows relative strength over the one-year period. Equation for Relative Strength: [current stock price/year-ago stock price] divided by [current S&P 500/year-ago S&P 500]. Note this can be a misleading indicator of performance because it does not take risk into account.

Relative Value   Dico Tools
The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to another, or, for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

Relative Yield Spread   Dico Tools
The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level. Used for bonds.

Release   Dico Tools
Relieve party to a trade of any previously made obligation concerning that trade, hence allowing the would-be transactor to show the inquiry/order to a new broker.

Release Clause   Dico Tools
A mortgage provision that releases a pledged asset after a certain portion of the total payments has been made.

Remainderman   Dico Tools
One who receives the principal of a trust when it is dissolved.

Remaining Maturity   Dico Tools
The length of time remaining until a bond comes due

Remaining Principal Balance   Dico Tools
The amount of principal dollars remaining to be paid under a mortgage as of a given time.

Remargining   Dico Tools
Putting up additional cash or securities after a margin call on a brokerage customer's margin account so that it meets minimum maintenance requirements.

Rembrandt Market   Dico Tools
The foreign market in the Netherlands.

REMIC   Dico Tools
See: Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit

Remit   Dico Tools
To pay for purchases by cash, check, or electronic transfer.

Remote Disbursement   Dico Tools
Technique that involves writing checks drawn on banks in remote locations so as to maximize disbursement float.

Renewable Term Life Insurance   Dico Tools
A policy for a stated period that may be renewed if desired at the end of the term.

Renewal   Dico Tools
Placement of a day order identical to one not completed on the previous day.

Rent   Dico Tools
Periodic fee for the use of property.

Rent Control   Dico Tools
Municipal regulation restricting the amount of rent that a building owner can charge.

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Rental Lease   Dico Tools
See: Full-service lease

Reoffering Yield   Dico Tools
In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which an underwriter offers to sell bonds to investors.

Reopen An Issue   Dico Tools
The Treasury, when it wants to sell additional securities, will occasionally sell more of an existing issue (reopen it) rather than offer a new issue.

Reorganization   Dico Tools
Creation of a plan to restructure a debtor's business and restore its financial health.

Reorganization Bond   Dico Tools
A bond issued by a company undergoing a reorganization process.

Repatriation   Dico Tools
The return from abroad of the financial assets of an organization or individual.

Replacement Cost   Dico Tools
Cost to replace a firm's assets.

Replacement Cost Accounting   Dico Tools
An accounting method that includes as part of depreciation the difference between the original purchase price of an asset and the current replacement cost.

Replacement Cost Insurance   Dico Tools
Insurance that pays out the full amount required to replace damaged property with new property, without taking into account the depreciated value of the property.

Replacement Cycle   Dico Tools
The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.

Replacement Value   Dico Tools
Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

Replacement-chain Problem   Dico Tools
Idea that future replacement decisions must be taken into account in selecting among projects.

Replicating Portfolio   Dico Tools
A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark.

Repo   Dico Tools
An agreement in which one party sells a security to another party and agrees to repurchase it on a specified date for a specified price. See: Repurchase agreement.

Report   Dico Tools
Written or oral confirmation that all or part of one's order has been executed, including the price and size parameters of the trade being reported; often followed by a fresh picture.

Reported Factor   Dico Tools
The pool factor as reported by the bond buyer for a given amortization period.

Reporting Currency   Dico Tools
The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S. dollars for a U.S. company.

Repossession   Dico Tools
When the creditor takes back an item that has been purchased, because of nonpayment.

Reproducible Assets   Dico Tools
A tangible asset with physical properties that can be matched or duplicated, such as a building or machinery.

Repurchase Agreement   Dico Tools
An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a collateralized short-term loan for which, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument, federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser's (customer's) perspective, the deal is reported as a reverse repo.

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Repurchase Of Stock   Dico Tools
Technique to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferential tax treatment for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a Dutch auction, open market, purchase, or tender offer.

Required Reserves   Dico Tools
The dollar amounts, based on reserve ratios, that banks are required to keep on deposit at a Federal Reserve Bank.

Required Return   Dico Tools
The minimum expected return you would need in order to purchase an asset, that is, to make the investment.

Required Yield   Dico Tools
Generally referring to bonds; the yield required by the marketplace to match available expected returns for financial instruments with comparable risk.

Rescheduled Loans   Dico Tools
Bank loans that are usually altered to have longer maturities in order to assist the borrower in making the necessary repayments.

Rescind   Dico Tools
To cancel a contract because of misrepresentation, fraud, or illegal procedure.

Research And Development (R"D)>   Dico Tools
Development of new products and services by a company in order to obtain a competitive advantage.

Research And Development Limited Partnership   Dico Tools
A partnership whose investors put up money to finance new product R&D in return for profits generated from the products.

Research Department   Dico Tools
The office in an institutional investing organizations that analyzes markets and securities.

Research Portable   Dico Tools
Service offered to clients that transmits investment bank research electronically by computers.

Reserve   Dico Tools
An accounting entry that properly reflects contingent liabilities.

Reserve Currency   Dico Tools
A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of exchange intervention and the settlement of intergovernmental claims.

Reserve Ratios   Dico Tools
Specified percentages of deposits, established by the Federal Reserve Board, that banks must keep in a noninterest-bearing account at one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.

Reserve Requirements   Dico Tools
The percentage of different types of deposits that member banks are required to hold on deposit at the Fed.

Reset Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds that allow the initial interest rates to be adjusted on specific dates in order that the bonds trade at the value they had when they were issued.

Reset Frequency   Dico Tools
The frequency with which the floating rate changes.

Residential Mortgage   Dico Tools
Mortgage on a residential property, tax-deductible for individuals up to $1 million.

Residential Property   Dico Tools
Property that consists of homes, apartments, townhouses, and condominiums.

Residual Assets   Dico Tools
Assets that remain after sufficient assets are dedicated to meet all senior debtholders' claims in full.

Residual Claim   Dico Tools
Related: Equity claim

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Residual Dividend Approach   Dico Tools
An approach that suggests that a firm pay dividends if and only if acceptable investment opportunities for those funds are currently unavailable.

Residual Income   Dico Tools
The amount of net income an investment center is able to earn above a specified minimum rate of return on assets.

Residual Method   Dico Tools
A method of allocating the purchase price for the acquisition of another firm among the acquired assets.

Residual Risk   Dico Tools
Related: Unsystematic risk

Residual Value   Dico Tools
Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

Residuals   Dico Tools
(1) Part of stock returns not explained by the explanatory variable (the market index return). Residuals measure the impact of firm-specific events during a particular period. (2) Remainder cash flows generated by pool collateral and those needed to fund bonds supported by the collateral.

Resistance Level   Dico Tools
A price level above which it is supposedly difficult for a security or market to rise. Price ceiling at which technical analysts note persistent selling of a commodity or security. Antithesis of support level.

Resolution   Dico Tools
A document that records a decision or action by a board of directors, or a bond resolution by a government entity authorizing a bond issue.

Resolution Funding Corporation (RefCorp)   Dico Tools
A government agency established by Congress in 1989 to issue bailout bonds and raise funds for the activities of the Resolution Trust Corporation, as well as to administer struggling institutions inherited from the disbanded Federal Savings and Loan Corporation.

Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC)   Dico Tools
A government agency established in 1989 and disbanded in 1996 that administered federal savings and loan institutions that were insolvent between 1989 and August 1992 by either bailing them out or merging them.

Restricted   Dico Tools
Placed on a list that dictates that the trader may not maintain positions, solicit business, or provide indications in a stock, but may serve as broker in agency trades after being properly cleared. Traders are so restricted due to investment bank involvement with the company on nonpublic activity (i.e., mergers and acquisitions defense), affiliate ownership, or underwriting activities; signified on the Quotron by a flashing "R." A restricted list and the stocks on it should never be conveyed to anyone outside of the trading areas, much less outside the firm. See: Grey list.

Restricted Account   Dico Tools
A margin account without enough equity to meet the initial margin requirement that is restricted from any purchases until the requirement is fulfilled.

Restricted Stock   Dico Tools
Stock that must be traded in compliance with special SEC regulations concerning its purchase and resale. These restrictions generally result from affiliate ownership, M&A activity, and underwriting activity.

Restricted Surplus   Dico Tools
A portion of retained earnings not allowed by law to be used for the payment of dividends.

Restrictive Covenants   Dico Tools
Provisions that place constraints on the operations of borrowers, such as restrictions on working capital, fixed assets, future borrowing, and payment of dividends.

Restrictive Endorsement   Dico Tools
An endorsement signature on the back of a check that specifies the conditions under which the check can be transferred or paid out.

Restructuring   Dico Tools
The reorganization of a company in order to attain greater efficiency and to adapt to new markets.

Resyndication Limited Partnership   Dico Tools
The sale of existing properties to new limited partners, so that they can receive the tax advantages that are no longer available to the old partners.

Retail   Dico Tools
Individual and institutional customers as opposed to dealers and brokers.

Retail Credit   Dico Tools
Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. See: consumer credit.

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Retail House   Dico Tools
A brokerage firm that caters to individual customers rather than large institutions.

Retail Inventory Method   Dico Tools
A procedure for estimating the dollar amount of ending inventory; the ending inventory at retail prices is converted to a cost basis by using a ratio of the cost and the retail prices of goods available for sale.

Retail Investors   Dico Tools
Small individual investors who commit capital for their personal account rater than on behalf of another company.

Retail Price   Dico Tools
The total price charged for a product sold to a customer, which includes the manufacturer's cost plus a retail markup.

Retained Earnings   Dico Tools
The portion of a corporation's owners' equity that has been earned from profitable operations and not distributed to stockholders.

Retained Earnings Statement   Dico Tools
A statement of all transactions affecting the balance of a company's retained earnings account.

Retention   Dico Tools
The number of units allocated to an underwriting syndicate member less the units held back by the syndicate manager for facilitating institutional sales and for allocation to nonmember firms.

Retention Rate   Dico Tools
The percentage of present earnings held back or retained by a corporation, or one minus the dividend payout rate. Also called the retention ratio.

Retire   Dico Tools
To extinguish a security, as in paying off a debt.

Retirement   Dico Tools
Removal from circulation of stock or bonds that have been reacquired or redeemed.

Retirement Protection Act Of 1994   Dico Tools
Legislation designed to protect the pension benefits of workers and retirees by increasing required support of pension plans by employers.

Retracement   Dico Tools
A price movement in the opposite direction of the previous trend.

Return   Dico Tools
The change in the value of a portfolio over an evaluation period, including any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

Return Of Capital   Dico Tools
A cash distribution resulting from the sale of a capital asset, or securities, or tax breaks from depreciation.

Return On Assets   Dico Tools
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by total average assets. Result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

Return On Equity   Dico Tools
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). Result is shown as a percentage. Investors use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets (ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

Return On Investment   Dico Tools
Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

Return On Sales   Dico Tools
A measurement of operational efficiency equaling net pre-tax profits divided by net sales expressed as a percentage.

Return On Sales Revenue   Dico Tools
A measure of operating performance; computed by dividing net income by total sales revenue.

Return On Total Assets   Dico Tools
An overall measure of the return to both stockholders and creditors; includes operating performance and asset turnover.

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Return-to-maturity Expectations   Dico Tools
A variant of pure expectations theory that suggests that the return an investor will realize by rolling over short-term bonds to some investment horizon will be the same as holding a zero-coupon bond with a maturity that is the same as that investment horizon.

Reuters   Dico Tools
International news and quotation service based in London.

Revaluation   Dico Tools
An increase in the foreign exchange value of a currency that is pegged to other currencies or gold.

Revenue Anticipation Note   Dico Tools
A short-term municipal debt issue that will be repaid with anticipated revenues, such as sales taxes, from the project.

Revenue Bond   Dico Tools
A bond issued by a municipality to finance either a project or an enterprise in which the issuer pledges to the bondholders the revenues generated by the operation of the projects financed. Examples are hospital revenue bonds and sewer revenue bonds.

Revenue Fund   Dico Tools
A fund accounting for all revenues from an enterprise financed by a municipal revenue bond.

Revenue Recognition Principle   Dico Tools
The idea that revenues should be recorded when (1) the earnings process has been substantially completed and (2) an exchange has taken place.

Revenue Reconciliation Act Of 1993   Dico Tools
Legislation created to reduce the federal budget deficit by cutting spending and increasing taxes.

Revenue Sharing   Dico Tools
The percentage split between the general partner and limited partners of profits and losses resulting from the operation of the involved business.

Revenues   Dico Tools
Increases in a company's resources from the sale of goods or services.

Reversal   Dico Tools
Turn, unwind. For convertible reversal, selling a convertible and buying the underlying common, usually effected by an arbitrageur. For market reversal, change in direction in the stock or commodity futures markets, as charted by technical analysts in trading ranges. For options reversal, closing the positions of each aspect of an options spread or combination strategy.

Reverse A Swap   Dico Tools
Reswap of bonds to gain the advantage of a yield spread or tax loss and restore a bond portfolio to its position before the original swap.

Reverse Conversion   Dico Tools
A technique in which brokerage firms earn interest on the stocks they hold for their customers by selling the short and investing the proceeds in money market accounts. The short positions are hedged to protect against adverse market conditions.

Reverse Leverage   Dico Tools
Occurs when the interest on borrowings exceeds the return on investment of the funds that were borrowed.

Reverse Leveraged Buyout   Dico Tools
Bringing back into publicly traded status a company that had been privatized by way of a leveraged buyout.

Reverse Mortgage   Dico Tools
A mortgage agreement allowing a homeowner to borrow against home equity and receive tax-free payments until the total principal and interest reach the credit limit of equity, and the lender is either repaid in full or takes the house.

Reverse Price Risk   Dico Tools
A type of mortgage pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an investor at rates prevailing at the time of mortgage application but sets the note rates when the borrowers closes. The lender is thus exposed to the risk of falling rates.

Reverse Repo   Dico Tools
In essence, refers to a repurchase agreement. From the customer's perspective, the customer provides a collateralized loan to the seller.

Reverse Stock Split   Dico Tools
A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the total value of shares of stock held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a 1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning one share for every three shares owned before the split. After the reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price. Some think this supposedly attracts investors.

Reverse-annuity Mortgages (RAM)   Dico Tools
Bank loan for an amount equal to a percentage of the appraisal value of the home. The loan is then paid to the homeowner in the form of an annuity.

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Reversing Trade   Dico Tools
Entering the opposite side of a currently held futures position to close out the position.

Revisionary Trust   Dico Tools
An irrevocable trust that becomes a revocable trust after a certain amount of time.

Revocable Trust   Dico Tools
A trust that may altered as many times as desired in which income-producing property passes directly to the beneficiaries at the time of the grantor's death. Since the arrangement can be altered at any time, the assets are considered part of the grantor's estate and they are taxed as such.

Revolving Credit Agreement   Dico Tools
A legal commitment in which a bank promises to lend a customer up to a specified maximum amount during a specified period.

Revolving Line Of Credit   Dico Tools
A bank line of credit on which the customer pays a commitment fee and can take and repay funds at will. Normally a revolving LOC involves a firm commitment from the bank for a period of several years.

Reward-to-volatility Ratio   Dico Tools
Ratio of excess return to portfolio standard deviation.

Rich   Dico Tools
Term for a security whose price seems too high in light of its price history.

RICO   Dico Tools
Stands for Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act. Legislation under/which inside traders may be convicted.

Rider   Dico Tools
A form accompanying an insurance policy that alters the policy's terms or coverage.

Riding The Yield Curve   Dico Tools
Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the declining maturity of the bonds.

Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking And Branching Effic   Dico Tools
Law permitting interstate banking in the U.S.

Rigged Market   Dico Tools
Manipulation of prices in a market to attract buyers and sellers.

Right   Dico Tools
Privilege granted shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is offered to the public. Such a right, which normally has a life of two to four weeks, is freely transferable and entitles the holder to buy the new common stock below the public offering price. See: Warrant.

Right Here   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. In-line, emphasizing that this is a customer inquiry that is ready to be executed and not distant on price. See: Tight.

Right Of First Refusal   Dico Tools
The right of a person or company to purchase some thing before the offering is made to others.

Right Of Redemption   Dico Tools
The right to recover property that has been attached by paying off the debt .

Right Of Rescission   Dico Tools
The right to void a contract without any penalty within three days as provided in the Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968.

Rights Offering   Dico Tools
Issuance to shareholders that allows them to purchase additional shares, usually at a discount to market price. Holdings of shareholders who do not exercise rights are usually diluted by the offering. Rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may wish to exercise them. Rights offerings are particularly common to closed-end funds, which cannot otherwise issue additional common stock.

Rights-on   Dico Tools
Shares trading with rights attached to them.

Rings   Dico Tools
Trading arenas located on the floor of an exchange in which traders execute orders. Sometimes called a pit.

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Rising Bottoms   Dico Tools
Chart pattern showing an increasing trend in the daily low prices of a security or commodity.

Risk   Dico Tools
Exposure to loss of investment capital due to a variety of causes such as business failure, stock market volatility, and interest rate changes. In business, the likelihood of loss or reduced profit.

Risk Arbitrage   Dico Tools
Traditionally, the simultaneous purchase of stock in a company being acquired and the sale of stock of the acquirer. Modern risk arbitrage focuses on capturing the spreads between the market value of an announced takeover target and the eventual price at which the acquirer will buy the target's shares.

Risk Classes   Dico Tools
Groups of projects that have approximately the same amount of risk.

Risk Controlled Arbitrage   Dico Tools
A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that generally use mortgage securities (MBS) as the primary assets.

Risk Factor   Dico Tools
In arbitrage pricing theory or the multibeta capital asset pricing model, the set of common factors that impact returns, e.g., market return, interest rates, inflation, or industrial production.

Risk Indexes   Dico Tools
Categories of risk used to calculate fundamental beta, including (1) market variability, (2) earnings variability, (3) low valuation, (4) immaturity and smallness, (5) growth orientation, and (6) financial risk.

Risk Lover   Dico Tools
A person willing to accept lower expected returns on prospects with higher amounts of risk.

Risk Management   Dico Tools
Procedures to minimize the adverse effect of a possible financial loss by: 1) identifying potential sources of loss; 2) measuring the financial consequences of a loss occurring; and 3) using controls to minimize actual losses or their financial consequences.

Risk Premium   Dico Tools
The reward for holding the risky equity market portfolio rather than the risk-free asset. The spread between Treasury and non-Treasury bonds of comparable maturity.

Risk Premium Approach   Dico Tools
A common approach for tactical asset allocation to determine the relative valuation of asset classes based on expected returns.

Risk Transfer   Dico Tools
The shifting of risk through insurance or securitization of debt because of risk aversion.

Risk-adjusted Discount Rate   Dico Tools
The rate established by adding an expected risk premium to the risk-free rate in order to determine the present value of a risky investment.

Risk-adjusted Profitability   Dico Tools
A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.

Risk-adjusted Return   Dico Tools
Often we subtract from the rate of return on an asset a rate of return from another asset that has similar risk. This gives an abnormal rate of return that shows how the asset performed over and above a benchmark asset with the same risk. We can also use the beta against the benchmark to calculate an alpha, which is also risk-adjusted performance.

Risk-averse   Dico Tools
Describes an investor who, when faced with two investments with the same expected return but different risks, prefers the one with the lower risk.

Risk-based Capital Ratio   Dico Tools
Bank requirement that there be a minimum ratio of estimated total capital to estimated risk-weighted asset.

Risk-free Asset   Dico Tools
An asset whose future normal return is known today with certainty.

Risk-free Rate   Dico Tools
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Risk-neutral   Dico Tools
Insensitive to risk.

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Risk-prone   Dico Tools
Willing to pay money to assume risk from others.

Risk-return Trade-off   Dico Tools
The basic concept that higher expected returns accompany greater risk, and vice versa.

Risk-reward Ratio   Dico Tools
Relationship of substantial reward corresponding to the amount of risk taken; mathematically represented by dividing the expected return by the standard deviation.

Riskless Arbitrage   Dico Tools
The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same asset to yield a profit.

Riskless Or Risk-free Asset   Dico Tools
An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk-free asset is commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.

Riskless Rate   Dico Tools
The rate earned on a riskless investment, typically the rate earned on the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill.

Riskless Rate Of Return   Dico Tools
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Riskless Transaction   Dico Tools
A transaction that is guaranteed a profit, such as the arbitrage of a temporary differential between commodity prices in two different markets. The evaluation of whether dealer markups and markdowns in OTC transactions are reasonable. According to NASD, markups or markdowns should not exceed 5%.

Risky Asset   Dico Tools
An asset whose future return is uncertain.

ROA   Dico Tools
See: Return on assets

Road Show   Dico Tools
A promotional presentation by an issuer of securities to potential buyers about the desirable qualities of the investments.

Rocket Scientist   Dico Tools
An employee of an investment firm (often having a Ph.D. in physics or mathematics) that works on highly mathematic models of derivative pricing.

ROE   Dico Tools
See: Return on equity

ROI   Dico Tools
return on investment (ROI): A measure of operating performance and efficiency in utilizing assets computed in its simplest form by dividing net income by average total assets.

ROIE   Dico Tools
return on infrastructure employed (ROIE): A retrospective comparison of net earnings with yearly information technoloy (IT) operating expenses.

Roll Down   Dico Tools
To move to an option position with a lower exercise price.

Roll Forward   Dico Tools
To move to an option position with a later expiration date.

Roll Order   Dico Tools
(1) Dividend roll; (2) Replacement of a maturing position with an identical one in the new maturity; (3) Recognizition of capital gain or loss while reestablishing the position at the risk of the market.

Roll Over   Dico Tools
To reinvest funds received from a maturing security in a new issue of the same or a similar security.

Roll Up   Dico Tools
To move to an option position with a higher exercise price. In venture capital, refers to the venture capitalist forcing small firms to merge operations in order to reduce costs

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Roll, Richard   Dico Tools
Author of path-breaking work on asset pricing including the famous Roll critique. Finance professor at UCLA.

Rollover   Dico Tools
Means that a loan is periodically repriced at an agreed spread over the appropriate, currently prevailing rate. Most term loans in the Euromarket are made on a rollover basis as to current LIBOR rate.

Ross, Stephen   Dico Tools
Developer of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Finance professor at MIT.

Rotation   Dico Tools
An active asset management strategy that tactically overweighted and underweighted certain sectors, depending on expected performance. Sometimes called sector rotation.

Roth IRA   Dico Tools
An IRA that allows for tax-free withdrawals as long as the contributions remain in the account for five years, and the account holder meets on e of the following criteria: age 59 1/2, death, disability or first-time home purchase.

Round Lot   Dico Tools
A trading order typically of 100 shares of a stock or some multiple of 100. Related: odd lot.

Round-trip Trade   Dico Tools
The purchase and sale of a security within a short period of time.

Round-trip Transactions Costs   Dico Tools
Costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact costs, and taxes.

Round-turn   Dico Tools
Procedure by which the long or short position of an individual is offset by an opposite transaction or by accepting or making delivery of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.

Royalty   Dico Tools
Payment for the right to use intellectual property or natural resources.

RPPP   Dico Tools
See: Relative purchasing power parity

Rubber Check   Dico Tools
A check that bounces for lack of funds.

Rule 13-d   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Requirement under Section 13-d of the Securities Act of 1934 that a form must be filed with the SEC within ten business days of acquiring direct or beneficial ownership of 5% or more of any class of equity securities in a publicly held corporation. The purchaser of such stock must also file a 13-d with the stock exchange on which the shares are listed (if any) and the company itself. Required information includes the way the shares were acquired, the purchaser's background, and future plans regarding the target company. The law is designed to protect against insidious takeover attempts and to keep the investing public aware of information that could affect the price of their stock. See: Williams Act.

Rule 14-d   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Regulations and restrictions covering public tender offers and related disclosure requirements.

Rule 144   Dico Tools
Restricts solicitation of buyers to complete the sell order of an insider (unless the firm is already a buyer); signified by a flashing "E" on Quotron.

Rule 144a   Dico Tools
SEC rule allowing qualified institutional buyers to buy and trade unregistered securities.

Rule 405   Dico Tools
NYSE codification of "know your customer" rules, which require that a customer's situation is suitable for any investment being made.

Rule 415   Dico Tools
Permits corporations to file a registration for securities they intend to issue in the future when market conditions are favorable. See: Shelf registration.

Rule Of 72   Dico Tools
A quick way to calculate how long it will take to double a sum of money. Divide 72 by the expected interest rate to determine the number of years (example 72 divided by 8% = 9 years).

Rules Of Fair Practice   Dico Tools
Rules established by the NASD that lay down guidelines for just and equitable principles of trade and business in securities markets.

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Rumortrage   Dico Tools
A term combining the words "rumor" and arbitrage, used to describe trading that occurs on the basis of rumors of a takeover.

Rump   Dico Tools
Usually used in the context of a merger or acquisition. A group of shareholders who refuse to tender their shares for a merger or acquisition. In a merger of Company A and Company B for example, if a sufficient number of Company B shareholders do not tender their shares, the new company will not be able to access the cash flows of Company B.

Run   Dico Tools
A run consists of a series of bid and offer quotes for different securities or maturities. Dealers give and ask for runs from each other.

Rundown   Dico Tools
A summary of the amount and prices of a serial bond issue that is still available for purchase.

Running Ahead   Dico Tools
The illegal practice of trading in a security for a broker's personal account before placing an order for the same security for a customer.

Runoff   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Series of trades printed on the ticker tape that occur on the NYSE before 4:00 p.m., but are not reported until afterwards due to heavy trading that makes the tape late.

Russell Indexes   Dico Tools
U.S. equity index widely used by pension and mutual fund investors that are weighted by market capitalization and published by the Frank Russell Company of Tacoma, Washington. For example, the Russell 3000 index includes the 3,000 largest U.S. companies according to market capitalization.

Russian Trading System (RTS)   Dico Tools
An electronic system in Russia, like the Nasdaq system on which the majority of Russian equities trading is conducted.

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