Engineering Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

Earthwork   Dico Tools
A fortification which was made chiefly of earth; either for temporary or permanent use, for either defensive or offensive purposes, constructed by excavating and embanking earth. See rampart.

Echaugnette   Dico Tools
(1) A watch tower or bartizan. See bartizan, machicolated turret. (2) A round sentry box sited at the angle of a bastion, which was corbelled out so as to facilitate observation of the surrounding terrain.

Echo   Dico Tools
To reflect received data to the sender. For example, keys depressed on a keyboard are usually echoed as characters displayed on the screen.

Ecoute   Dico Tools
A small gallery situated in the foreground of the glacis, connected to a main gallery running parallel to the covert way, where a miner would listen for the noises made by enemy miners, thus enabling countermines to be dug to intercept them. Also known as catacoustics.

Edwardian Castle   Dico Tools
The castles which were raised by Edward the 1st, to control the newly acquired territories in Wales, these castles are amongst the finest examples of concentric fortifications of the period.

Egyption Merlons   Dico Tools
Half circle merlons used on Egyptian fortifications (ie Medinet Habu, the palace of Rameses III, about 1200 B.C.). See merlon.

Electrical Engineer   Dico Tools
An engineer concerned with electrical devices and systems and with the use of electrical energy

Electrical Interference   Dico Tools
Electrical noise induced upon the signal wires that obscures the wanted information signal.

Electrode   Dico Tools
See Isopotential point.

Electrode Potential (E)   Dico Tools
The difference in potential established between an electrode and a solution when the electrode is immersed in the solution.

Electrolyte   Dico Tools
Any substance which, when in solution will conduct an electric current. Acids, bases, and salts are common electrolytes.

Electromotive Force (emf)   Dico Tools
The potential difference between the two electrodes in a cell. The cell emf is the cell voltage measured when no current is flowing through the cell. It can be measured by means of a pH meter with high input impedance.

Electronic Industries Association (EIA)   Dico Tools
A standards organization specializing in the electrical and functional characteristics of interface equipment.

Embankment Dam   Dico Tools
A dam composed of a mound of earth and rock; the simplest type of gravity dam

Embattled   Dico Tools
See battlemented, crenellated.

Embrasure, Embrazure   Dico Tools
(1) An opening in the parapet or the wall of a work for firing guns through at an enemy. The embrasure was internally splayed to allow the gun to be swung through a greater arc, thus increasing its field of fire. (2) The splayed interior of a gun loop, gun port, arrow loop or slit. (3) A crenel or a reveal. (Fr. braser, to splay).

EMF   Dico Tools
Electromotive force. A rise in (electrical) potential energy. The principal unit is the volt.

EMI   Dico Tools
Electromagnetic interference.

Emissivity   Dico Tools
The ratio of energy emitted by an object to the energy emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature. The emissivity of an object depends upon its material and surface texture; a polished metal surface can have an emissivity around 0.2 and a piece of wood can have an emissivity around 0.95.

Empty Bastion   Dico Tools
When the level area within a bastion is lower than the ramparts the bastion is said to be empty.

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En Bec   Dico Tools
A tower which is described as being 'en bec' is a tower which has a beaked projection pointing towards the most likely direction of attack by an enemy's siege equipment.

Enceinte   Dico Tools
(1) The body of a fortification, a fortified enclosure, generally the whole area which was enclosed by the main wall or rampart. (2) A fortified perimeter. (Fr. enceindre, to surround).

End Point (Potentiometric)   Dico Tools
The apparent equivalence point of a titration at which a relatively large potential change is observed.

End Points   Dico Tools
The end points of a full scale calibration curve.

Endothermic   Dico Tools
Absorbs heat. A process is said to be endothermic when it absorbs heat.

Enfilade   Dico Tools
Defensive artillery was fired from the flank of a work and directed along or across another, for example; from the salient of a bastion across the faces of an adjoining bastions or the curtain wall in between. This type of defence produces a better form of defence because it is more effective against advancing infantry than direct fire. (L. flium, thread).

Engineering   Dico Tools
A profession in which a knowledge of math and natural science is applied to develop ways to utilize the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of all human beings

Enneagon   Dico Tools
A nine sided fortification.

Enthalpy   Dico Tools
The sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure.

Entrench   Dico Tools
To fortify with a trench and parapet.

Entrenchment   Dico Tools
A defensive earthwork consisting of trenches and parapets.

Envelope   Dico Tools
A small rampart built in a ditch or in front of it, which was used to cover a weak point in the works.

Environmental Conditions   Dico Tools
All conditions in which a transducer may be exposed during shipping, storage, handling, and operation.

Environmental Engineer   Dico Tools
An engineer who designs and operates systems to provide safe drinking water and to prevent and control pollution in water, in the air, and on the land

Epaule   Dico Tools
An earthwork sited where the flank and the face of a bastion join to form the shoulder of the bastion, which was used as a cover from flanking fire. (Fr. paule, shoulder).

Epaulement   Dico Tools
A side work of a battery or earthwork which was used to protect it from flanking fire.

Episcopal Castle   Dico Tools
A castle which was governed by a bishop. (Gk. episkopos, overseer).

Eprom   Dico Tools
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. The PROM can be erased by ultraviolet light or electricity.

Eptagon   Dico Tools
A fortification which has seven sides.

Equilibrium Constant   Dico Tools
The product of the concentrations (or activities) of the substances produced at equilibrium in a chemical reaction divided by the product of concentrations of the reacting substances, each concentration raised to that power which is the coefficient of the substance in the chemical equation.

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Equitransference   Dico Tools
Equal diffusion rates of the positively and negatively charged ions of an electrolyte across a liquid junction without charge separation.

Equivalent Conductance (l)   Dico Tools
Equivalent conductance of an electrolyte is defined as the conductance of a volume of solution containing one equivalent weight of dissolved substances when placed between two parallel electrodes 1 cm apart, and large enough to contain between them all of the solution. l is never determined directly, but is calculated from the specific conductance (Ls). If C is the concentration of a solution in gram equivalents per liter, then the concentration of a solution in gram equivalents per liter, then the concentration per cubic centimeter is C/1000, and the volume containing one equivalent of the solute, is, therefore, 1000/C.

Error   Dico Tools
The difference between the value indicated by the transducer and the true value of the measurand being sensed. Usually expressed in percent of full scale output.

Error Band   Dico Tools
The allowable deviations to output from a specific reference norm. Usually expressed as a percentage of full scale.

Escaraguaita   Dico Tools
A Spanish hexagonal shaped bartizan of the 14th century. See bartizan.

Escarp   Dico Tools
(1) The side of a ditch which was next to the rampart. (2) To make into a scarp or sudden slope. See scarp.

Escarpment   Dico Tools
The foreground of a fortification, which was excavated precipitously to hinder an enemy's approach.

Esplanade   Dico Tools
The space between a citadel and the surrounding houses of a fortified city, which was purposely kept clear so as to eliminate any cover for an enemy force attempting to erect breaching batteries or making approaches.

Estacade   Dico Tools
(1) A barrier or dike constructed of wooden piles driven into the sea or river bed, to obstruct an enemy's advance. (2) A form of defence made of stakes, such as a stockade. (3) A raft fasted together with chains, which was used to render a channel or harbour mouth impassable. (Sp. estaca, stake).

Etoile   Dico Tools
A small star shaped fort or redoubt which had four, five, six or more points, also known as a star redoubt. (Fr. toile, star).

Eutectic Temperature   Dico Tools
The lowest possible melting point of a mixture of alloys.

Exagon   Dico Tools
A fortification which has six sides.

Excitation   Dico Tools
The external application of electrical voltage current applied to a transducer for normal operation.

Exothermic   Dico Tools
Gives off heat. A process is said to be exothermic when it releases heat.

Expansion Factor   Dico Tools
Correction factor for the change in density between two pressure measurement areas in a constricted flow.

Explosion-proof Enclosure   Dico Tools
An enclosure that can withstand an explosion of gases within it and prevent the explosion of gases surrounding it due to sparks, flashes or the explosion of the container itself, and maintain an external temperature which will not ignite the surrounding gases.

Exposed Junction   Dico Tools
A form of construction of a thermocouple probe where the hot or measuring junction protrudes beyond the sheath material so as to be fully exposed to the medium being measured. This form of construction usually gives the fastest response time.

Exterior Crest   Dico Tools
The line of intersection of the superior and exterior slopes.

Exterior Side   Dico Tools
The side connecting the exterior crest and the beam.

Exterior Side Of A Fortification   Dico Tools
The exterior side of a fortification is the distance or the line between one bastion and the next.

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External Polygon   Dico Tools
The line connecting the point of an arrow headed bastion to the adjacent rampart, making a 45 degree angle with the centre of the bastion. See arrow headed bastion, internal polygon.

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