Engineering Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

Face   Dico Tools
(1) The front between two neighbouring bastions or any other type of salient work. (2) The part of a work formed by one side of a salient angle. (3) The outer surface of any work projecting forwards which meet to form a salient angle.

Face Of A Bastion   Dico Tools
The exterior face of a bastion between the salient point and the flank. See face.

Fahrenheit   Dico Tools
A temperature scale defined by 32 at the ice point and 212 at the boiling point of water at sea level.

Fall Trap   Dico Tools
A form of gateway defence. See drop box

False Machicolations   Dico Tools
Brackets serving a purely decorative function. See blind machicolations, bracket, mock machicolations.

Fascines   Dico Tools
Bundles of brushwood were used to; fill in ditches, in the construction of field works, strengthening earthworks and to prevent erosion. (L. fascis, bundle).

Fasil   Dico Tools
A low third wall outside the double walled defences of a town. Similar to Constinoples Theodosian land walls. (Arabic)

Fastness   Dico Tools
A major fortification; a stronghold or fortress. (O.E. fads).

Fausse Braie, Fausse Braye, Fausse Bray   Dico Tools
A low rampart provided with a parapet built forward, parallel and below the main rampart, forming an outer enceinte, used in the 16th and 17th century by engineers as a covered way. Later the work was abandoned because when under bombardment the fragments from the rear wall wounded the defenders present, forming what came to be known as a shot trap. M.Vauban continued to use these types of works placing them before curtains, they were then called tenailles.

Fer A Cheval   Dico Tools
A work with a parapet in the shape of a horseshoe.

Ferrule   Dico Tools
A compressible tubular fitting that is compressed onto a probe inside a compression fitting to form a gas-tight seal.

Field Balancing Equipment   Dico Tools
An assembly of measuring instruments for performing balancing operations on assembled machinery which is not mounted in a balancing machine.

Field Gate   Dico Tools
A gate in the curtain wall leading out to the country surrounding a castle. See postern.

Field Of View   Dico Tools
A volume in space defined by an angular cone extending from the focal plane of an instrument.

Field Work   Dico Tools
A temporary work constructed by an army in the field, used to cover an attack on a fortification, or as protection against another enemy army, especially a relieving force.

File   Dico Tools
A set of related records or data treated as a unit.

Filling Solution   Dico Tools
A solution of defined composition to make contact between an internal element and a membrane or sample. The solution sealed inside a pH glass bulb is called an internal filling solution. This solution normally contains a buffered chloride solution to provide a stable potential and a designated zero potential point. The solution which surrounds the reference electrode internal and periodically requires replenishing is called the reference filling solution. It provides contact between the reference electrode internal and sample through a junction.

Fire-Setting   Dico Tools
An ancient tunneling technique in which rock is heated with fire and then doused with cold water, causing the rock to fracture

Firing Gallery   Dico Tools
A gallery which was set into the walls or towers of a castle below the level of the battlements. A firing galley was provided with slits for firing arrows and bolts at an enemy. With the introduction of the galleries the fire power of a castles defences was increased. See mural gallery.

Firing Loop, Firing Slit   Dico Tools
Apertures in the walls of a castle which were used by defenders to discharge arrows and bolts though at the enemy. See arrow loop, arrow slit, loop.

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Firmware   Dico Tools
Programs stored in PROMs.

Flag   Dico Tools
Any of various types of indicators used for identification of a condition or event; for example, a character that signals the termination of a transmission.

Flank   Dico Tools
(1) The flank or side of a work, such as that of a bastion from the salient point to the curtain wall, used to provided a position for flanking fire. (2) To provide defensive flanking fire which defends another work along the length of the work. (Fr. flanc).

Flank (concave)   Dico Tools
The flank which is made in an arc of a circle.

Flank (direct Or Grasing)   Dico Tools
The flank which is perpendicular to the opposite face produced, and oblique when the flank makes an acute angle with that face.

Flank (retired)   Dico Tools
The flank which is built behind the line of the face of the bastion and the curtain. See retired flank.

Flank (second)   Dico Tools
The flank which is made when the face of the bastion does not extend to the curtain but joins it at some other point, then the part of the curtain between that point and the flank is called the second flank.

Flank Of The Bastion   Dico Tools
The section of the bastion between the face and the curtain, from which the ditch in front of the adjacent curtain and the face of the neighbouring bastions were defended. See enfilade, flank, flanking.

Flanked Angle   Dico Tools
The angle formed by a curtain wall and a flank of a bastion.

Flanker   Dico Tools
(1) A work which commanded the flank of an assailing force. See flanking, flanking tower. (2) A battery in the flank of a bastion, which was used to flank the adjacent rampart.

Flanking   Dico Tools
The use of fortifications designed to provide flanking fire, for example; the approaches to a tower were covered by the neighbouring curtain walls. Flanking reduced the amount of dead ground surrounding a fortification thus improving its defencibility. See deadground, flank, flanking tower.

Flanking Angle   Dico Tools
The angle formed by a flank of a bastion or other work with a curtain wall. Also known as a curtain flank. See curtain angle.

Flanking Effect   Dico Tools
The effect of flanking fire on an enemy or their position. See maximum flanking effect.

Flanking Tower   Dico Tools
A tower which was built not only beside the entrance but also at strategic points on the curtain wall, usually at the angles, which were used to provide flanking fire.

Flanking Turret   Dico Tools
A turret situated at the corner of a castle which was used to provide flanking fire. See bartizan, machicoulis.

Flanking Wall   Dico Tools
A curtain wall flanking a tower or bastion or some other work.

Fleche   Dico Tools
An arrow shaped outwork consisting of two faces with a parapet and an open gorge, which formed a salient angle at the base of a glacis, smaller in size than a redan or a lunette. (Fr. fleche, arrow).

Floppy Disk   Dico Tools
A small, flexible disk carrying a magnetic medium in which digital data is stored for later retrieval and use.

Flow   Dico Tools
Travel of liquids or gases in response to a force (i.e. pressure or gravity).

Flow Rate   Dico Tools
Actual speed or velocity of fluid movement .

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Flowmeter   Dico Tools
A device used for measuring the flow or quantity of a moving fluid.

Flying Bridge   Dico Tools
(1) A narrow wooden bridge which was used for the purpose of communication between the motte and the bailey of a motte and bailey castle. The flying bridge was usually supported on wooden piles, the bridge could be then demolished by the defenders if the enemy took the bailey. See motte. (2) A small bridge which was used for the purpose of intercommunication between the different parts of a fortification (eg. between outer and inner defences). They could be withdrawn, thrown down or destroyed if necessary, depending on the situation. See chemise foot bridge.

FM   Dico Tools
Factory Mutual Research Corporation. An organization which sets industrial safety standards.

FM Approved   Dico Tools
An instrument that meets a specific set of specifications established by Factory Mutual Research Corporation.

Force   Dico Tools
any action that tends to maintain or alter the position of a structure

Forced Vibration   Dico Tools
Vibration of a system caused by an imposed force. Steady-state vibration is an unchanging condition of periodic or random motion.

Forebuilding   Dico Tools
(1) A subsidiary tower projecting in front of a castles main entrance. See barbican, gatehouse, small keep. (2) A small tower which covered the first floor entrance of a keep. See small keep.

Forecourt   Dico Tools
The court formed by the walls of a barbican, or the barbican as a whole. See outer bailey.

Foreland   Dico Tools
The ground between the wall of a fortification and the moat.

Forework   Dico Tools
An outwork or forebuilding. See barbican. (L. fortis, strong).

Fortalice   Dico Tools
A small fort or outwork of a fortification.

Fortification   Dico Tools
(1) The act or art of fortifying a military position by means of defensive and/or offensive works. (2) A work or structure, used as a military position; a fortified place or position. (L. fortis, strong; Fr. facere, to make).

Fortified Church   Dico Tools
From the earliest periods the use of a church as a place of refuge in times of strife was common, in some cases the church was provided with features of military architecture to increase its defensibility. See church (fortified).

Fortified Dock, Fortified Harbour   Dico Tools
(1) The fortified waterside part of a `wasserburg' or German water castle, the purpose of the castle was to control the traffic on the water way it fronted and to extract dues from the shipping. (2) A dock or harbour which was provided with defences.

Fortified Manor, Fortified Manor House   Dico Tools
During the late 14th and the 15th centuries the necessity of fully defensible castles was on the decline, so that the number of fortified manors increased and developed into the undefended mansions of the Elizabethan and following periods. The plans of the fortified manors varied because of the addition of piece-meal defences to existing halls and manor houses. The most common design was of quadrangular plan, and were often surrounded by a wet moat. Also known as a defensible house or just a manor house.

Fortlet   Dico Tools
A small fort, which was used as a watch tower of as a signal station.

FORTRAN   Dico Tools
Formula Translation language. A widely used high-level programming language well suited to problems that can be expressed in terms of algebraic formulas. It is generally used in scientific applications.

Fortress   Dico Tools
A strong permanent fortification which may include a town. (O.Fr. fortresse).

Foss, Fossa, Fossae, Fosse   Dico Tools
(1) A ditch, moat, canal or pit, which were used to impede the advance of an enemy force. See ditch. (2) The ditch or a set of ditches which surrounded a Roman fortification, the excavated soil was used to construct the vallum or rampart. (L. folio, dig).

Fossa Fastigata   Dico Tools
A type of Roman ditch described by Hyginus that was V shaped in cross section. These ditches could be provided with a narrow channel in the bottom. See Foss.

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Fossa Punica   Dico Tools
A type of Roman ditch described by Hyginus that had a much steeper outer scarp, and was used in the outermost ditch. See Foss.

Four-leaf Keep   Dico Tools
A keep consisting of four round towers which mutually intersected, dating from the 12th century. See quatrefoil keep.

FPM   Dico Tools
Flow velocity in feet per minute.

FPS   Dico Tools
Flow velocity in feet per second.

Fraise   Dico Tools
A horizontal or inclining palisade which was placed on the outward slope of a rampart or the berm of a earthwork, to prevent the work from being taken by surprise and to impede an enemy's advance.

Freezing Point   Dico Tools
The temperature at which the substance goes from the liquid phase to the solid phase.

Frequency   Dico Tools
The number of cycles over a specified time period over which an event occurs. The reciprocal is called the period.

Frequency Modulated Output   Dico Tools
A transducer output which is obtained in the form of a deviation from a center frequency, where the deviation is proportional to the applied stimulus.

Frequency Of Vibration   Dico Tools
The number of cycles occurring in a given unit of time. RPM - revolutions per minute. CPM- cycles per minute.

Frequency Output   Dico Tools
An output in the form of frequency which varies as a function of the applied input.

Frequency, Natural   Dico Tools
The frequency of free (not forced) oscillations of the sensing element of a fully assembled transducer.

Front Of A Bastion   Dico Tools
The distance which lies between to adjacent bastions.

Full Bastion   Dico Tools
When the terrain within a bastion is at the same height as the rampart with only the parapet rising up to protect the soldiers behind, the bastion is said to be full. Fukugshiki tenshu

Full Bridge   Dico Tools
A Wheatstone bridge configuration utilizing four active elements or strain gages.

Full Scale Output   Dico Tools
The algebraic difference between the minimum output and maximum output.

Functions   Dico Tools
Three mode PID controller. A timeproportioning controller with integral and derivative functions. The integral function automatically adjusts the system temperature to the set point temperature to eliminate droop due to the time proportioning function.

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