Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

C(ASCP)   Dico Tools
Technologist in Chemistry by the American Society for Clinical Pathology Board of Registry

C-reactive Protein (CRP)   Dico Tools
Its measurement in the blood can be used to detect or grade inflammation.

CADAVER   Dico Tools
The body of a dead person.

A recently deceased person who has donated an organ or tissue.

Caecum   Dico Tools
Latin = blind.

Calcaneus   Dico Tools
Latin calx = heel, hence the bone of the heel.

Calcar   Dico Tools
Latin = a spur.

Calcar Avis   Dico Tools
Latin the spur of a bird, hence a spur-like elevation.

Calcarine   Dico Tools
Latin calcar = spur, hence spur-shaped.

Calcification   Dico Tools
Deposition of chalky (calcific) material in tissue, leading to bone formation.

Calcifications   Dico Tools
Small calcium deposits in breast tissue that can be seen by mammography (see Breast Cancer).

Calcium   Dico Tools
A mineral that is the primary component of hydroxyapatite. It is also vital to many physical processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, muscle contractions, the transmission of nerve signals, and the regulation of internal organs (see Osteoporosis).

Calf   Dico Tools
The soft tissue swelling at the back of the leg.

Calix   Dico Tools
Latin = a wine-cup (plural - calices).

Callosum   Dico Tools
Latin callum = hard.

Calorie   Dico Tools
The unit for measuring the amount of energy in food (See Weight Management).

Calvaria   Dico Tools
Latin calva = bald head, hence the part of the skull containing the brain - i.e. cranium minus the facial skeleton.

Calyx   Dico Tools
Latin = a wine-cup (plural - calyces).

Campylobacter   Dico Tools
A type of bacteria. Enteric infections with these bacteria can trigger reactive arthritis in susceptible individuals

Canal   Dico Tools
Latin canalis = a water-pipe or canal.

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Canaliculus   Dico Tools
Diminutive of canal.

Cancellous   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cancelli = grating or lattice.

CANCER   Dico Tools
A malignant neoplasm or tumor characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. Types include carcinoma (which affects epithelial cells), sarcoma (which affects soft tissues), lymphoma and leukemia (which affect lymphoid tissue), and glioma (which affects brain tissue).

Canine   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin canis = dog.

CANITIES   Dico Tools
A condition that causes premature graying of the hair.

Canthus   Dico Tools
Greek kanthos - used at first for rim of eye, then angle between ends of rims.

CAPA   Dico Tools
Certified Ambulatory Perianesthesia Nurse by the American Board of Perianesthesia Nursing Certification, Inc. (ABPANC)

Tiny blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients to and remove waste products from cells.

Capillary   Dico Tools
Latin capillaris = hair-like, hence a very thin blood vessel.

Capillary Bed   Dico Tools
A collection of small vessels where the blood flows very slowly to allow plasma to flow in and out to exchange nutrients and waste products with the cells.

Capitate   Dico Tools
Adjective, having a caput from Latin capitis = of a head (q.v.).

Capitulum   Dico Tools
Diminutive of caput, Latin = head.

Capsule   Dico Tools
A thick membrane joining together ends of two adjacent bones to form a joint. Its inside is lined with synovium that forms the joint fluid.

Caput   Dico Tools
Latin = head. Capitis - of a head, adjective - capitate = having a head (cf. decapitate).

Caput Medusae   Dico Tools
Latin caput = head, Medusa = Greek mythical female with snake like hair.

An organic molecule composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates constitutes a major class of nutrients, and are present in foods such as bread and pasta.

An agent that promotes the development of cancer.

CARCINOMA   Dico Tools
A malignant tumor of the epithelial cells that line body surfaces and cavities. Carcinoma in situ refers to an early stage of cancer that has not invaded surrounding tissues.

CARDIAC   Dico Tools
Having to do with the heart.

Cardinal   Dico Tools
Latin cardinalis = principal, of primary importance.

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Having to do with to the circulatory system (the heart and blood vessels).

Carina   Dico Tools
Latin = a keel.

Carneae   Dico Tools
Latin carnea = fleshy.

Carotid   Dico Tools
Greek karoo, to put to sleep (heavy sleep), because compression of the common or internal carotid artery may cause coma.

Carpus   Dico Tools
Greek = wrist, adjective - carpal.

CARRIER   Dico Tools
A person who does not show symptoms or have active disease, but who carries an infectious organism and can transmit it to others.

Cartilage   Dico Tools
A tissue that covers the ends of bones to form a smooth shock-absorbing surface for joints, and results in very low friction movement. Cartilage also occurs at other sites, such as the nose and the ears.

Cartilaginous Joint   Dico Tools
Tough cartilage plate that permits slight movement (see Arthritis).

Caruncle   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin caro = flesh, hence, a small fleshy elevation.

CASE STUDY   Dico Tools
A description of a specific clinical case, that is, the development of disease and response to treatment in a single individual.

Non-intimate contact between individuals (e.g., hugging, eating, working together) that does not involve transfer of body fluids and therefore does not pose a risk for transmission of blood-borne diseases.

Cataract   Dico Tools
An increased thickening and clouding of the lens of the eye that can lead to vision loss (see Diabetes).

CATEGORY A, B, C, D, X   Dico Tools
An FDA classification for drug safety during pregnancy. Category A drugs have not shown a risk to fetuses in controlled studies. Category X includes drugs which animal and human studies or common experience have shown to cause fetal abnormalities or miscarriages.

Catheter   Dico Tools
A hollow, flexible tube used to add or remove fluid to or from the body, commonly inserted into the bladder through the urethra (see Urinary Incontinence).

Cauda   Dico Tools
Latin = tail, adjective - caudate - having a tail.

Cauda Equina   Dico Tools
Latin = a horse's tail.

Cauda Equina Syndrome   Dico Tools
Some people with advanced AS on rare occasions may get this neurological condition resulting from gradual scarring at the lower end of the spine that entraps the lower spinal nerves. The name cauda equina means horsetail, so named because the lowermost spinal nerves slope downward as a bunch before they exit the vertebral column.

Caudal   Dico Tools
Latin cauda = tail, hence toward the tail, inferior (in human anatomy).

Caudate   Dico Tools
Latin cauda = tail, hence having a tail.

Cava   Dico Tools
Latin cavum = cave, hollow.

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Cavernous   Dico Tools
Latin containing caverns or cave-like spaces.

Cavity   Dico Tools
Latin cavitas = a hollow.

Cavum   Dico Tools
Latin = cave.

CB Or ChB   Dico Tools
Bachelor of Surgery

CBC   Dico Tools
See complete blood count.

CBI   Dico Tools
Certificate in Breast Imaging by the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists (CAMRT)

CCNS   Dico Tools
Critical Care Nurse Specialist by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN)

CCRN   Dico Tools
Critical Care Registered Nurse by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN)

A type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infection.

CD4 CELL COUNT   Dico Tools
The number of CD4 lymphocytes in one cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood. The CD4 count is one indicator of the progression of HIV disease. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 is a diagnostic criteria for AIDS.

CD4+ (CD8+) T Lymphocytes   Dico Tools
These T cells carry a marker on the surface known as a cluster of differentiation (CD) marker which can be either CD4 or COB. The CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, help orchestrate the antibody responses, and the CDB+ T cells-also called cytotoxic (destructive to cells) or suppressor T cells-are involved in cell-mediated immunity that targets infected cells.

A type of white blood cell that helps regulate and/or carry out the body's immune response. CD8 cells include T-suppressor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

CDA   Dico Tools
Certified Dental Assistant

CDC   Dico Tools
See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CDE   Dico Tools
Certified Diabetes Educator by the National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators (NCBDE)

CDN   Dico Tools
Certified Dialysis Nurse by the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC)

CDP   Dico Tools
Complete Decongestive Physiotherapy.

CDT   Dico Tools
Complete Decongestive Therapy; Complex decongestive therapy.

Cecum   Dico Tools
Latin = blind.

Celiac   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek koilia = belly.

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Celiac Disease   Dico Tools
Inability to digest and absorb a protein found in wheat, resulting in poor absorption of nutrients from the foods because of damage to the lining of the small intestine; also called gluten intolerance or non-tropical sprue.

CELL   Dico Tools
The basic unit of living organisms. A cell contains a nucleus and a cell wall (in plants) or a cell membrane (in animals) which surrounds the cellular material, called cytoplasm.

Cellulitis   Dico Tools
A serious, potentially life-threatening bacterial infection spreads freely, quickly, and uncontrollably through the deeper tissues and the lymphatic or circulatory systems; also known as lymphangitis.

Celom   Dico Tools
Greek koilos = a hollow

CEN   Dico Tools
Certified Emergency Nurse by the Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing (BCEN)

The U.S. federal government agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that monitors the occurrence of diseases and develops policies for preventing disease and maintaining the health of the population.

Central   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin centrum = centre.

The brain and spinal cord.

Centrum   Dico Tools
Latin = centre.

Cephalic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek kephale = head.

CEPLENE   Dico Tools
See histamine dihydrochloride.

Cerebellum   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin cerebrum = brain.

Having to do with the flow of blood to the brain.

See stroke.

Cerebrum   Dico Tools
Latin = brain, adjective - cerebral.

Cerumen   Dico Tools
Latin cera = wax.

Cervical   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cervix = neck, hence, pertaining to the neck.

Cervical Nodes   Dico Tools
Lymph nodes located along the sides of the neck.

Cervicitis   Dico Tools
Inflammation of the cervix, the part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina.

Cervix   Dico Tools
Latin = neck, adjective - cervical.

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A delivery procedure that involves making an incision through the abdominal wall to remove an infant from the uterus (womb).

CFIDS   Dico Tools
Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome. See chronic fatigue syndrome.

CFRN   Dico Tools
Certified Emergency Flight Nurse by the Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing (BCEN)

CGRN   Dico Tools
Certified Gastroenterology Registered Nurse by the Certifying Board of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc. (CBGNA)

Challenge Testing   Dico Tools
A method of testing for food allergy, usually in double-blind experiments in which neither patient nor doctor knows which food is taken in a pharmaceutically prepared pill (see Allergies).

ChD   Dico Tools
Doctor of Surgery (post-medical degree specialty program)

CHEMOKINE   Dico Tools
A chemical, secreted by certain immune system cells, that acts as a messenger between cells and stimulates the activity of cells.

Chemoprevention   Dico Tools
The use of drugs or chemicals to prevent cancer (see Breast Cancer).

The use of drugs to treat disease.

Chiasma   Dico Tools
Greek kiasma = cross. (The Greek letter chi = c).

A system of treatment based on manipulation of the spine.

Chlamydia Trachomatis   Dico Tools
A bacterium that has a predilection to infect the genitourinary tract. Such an infection is the more commonly recognized initiator of reactive arthritis in the United States.

Thick-walled resistant resting spore, especially in Histoplasma capsulatum. See macroconidium.

ChM Or CM   Dico Tools
Master of Surgery (post-medical degree specialty program)

Choana   Dico Tools
Greek = funnel, plural - choanae.

An agent (especially an herb) that improves bile flow.

Inflammation of the bile duct, often characterized by jaundice.

Obstruction of the flow of bile between the liver, the gall bladder, and the small intestine.

A fatty substance in animal tissue that is an essential component of cell membranes, certain hormones, and nerve fiber insulation. Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver, and is also present in certain foods. There are two primary types of cholesterol in the blood, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is considered a risk factor for heart disease; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which is considered protective.

Chondral   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek chondros = cartilage.

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Chorda   Dico Tools
Latin = cord.

Choroid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek chorion = skin and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a membrane.

CHPN   Dico Tools
Certified Hospice and Palliative Nurse by the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA) in association with the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)

CHRN   Dico Tools
Certified Hyperbaric Nurse by the Baromedical Nurses Association (BNA)

Chromosome   Dico Tools
A thread-like structure within the nucleus of a cell that contains the genes. There are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of a human cell; 22 of them are in pairs that are given the numbers 1-22, and the remaining two are the X or Y chromosomes (sex chromosomes) that determine a person's sex-males have one X and one Y chromosomes, and females have two X chromosomes.

CHRONIC   Dico Tools
A long-term or persistent disease. Contrast with acute.

A condition in which HCV or HBV continues to replicate and infect new cells after six months.

CHRONIC HBV   Dico Tools
A term for lifelong infection of hepatitis B.

Liver inflammation lasting longer than six months.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency   Dico Tools
A condition in which the veins of the legs do not efficiently return blood to the heart; CVI.

Chyle   Dico Tools
Greek = juice.

Chyli   Dico Tools
Greek = juice.

Chylomicron   Dico Tools
A large, extremely low-density lipoprotein that transports triglyceride from the intestine to fat tissue in the body (see High Cholesterol).

Chyme   Dico Tools
A nearly liquid mass of partly digested food and secretions in the stomach and intestine (see Digestive Health).

Ciliary   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cilia = eyelashes.

Cilium   Dico Tools
Latin = eyelid, hence, an eyelash; adjective - ciliary, or ciliated.

Cinereum   Dico Tools
Latin cineris = of ashes.

Cingulum   Dico Tools
Latin girdle or belt, adjective - cingulate.

Circumferential Measurement   Dico Tools
The use of a tape to measure the circumference of a limb at selected anatomic locations. These measurements are used to calculate limb volume and to fit compression garments.

Circumflex   Dico Tools
Verb and adjective, Latin circum = around, and flexere = to bend, hence, bend or bent around.

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CIRRHOSIS   Dico Tools
A type of liver damage in which normal liver cells are replaced with fibrous scar tissue. In compensated cirrhosis, the liver is damaged but can still function. In decompensated cirrhosis, liver function is severely impaired and scar tissue interferes with normal blood flow through the liver, potentially leading to bleeding varices, ascites, "brain fog," and other symptoms.

Cisterna   Dico Tools
Latin = a cistern.

Cisterna Chyli   Dico Tools
An enlarged lymph vessel that is about 6 centimeters long. It is located in the lumbar region of the abdominal cavity, just to the right of the abdominal aorta. It receives and temporarily stores lymph as it travels upward from the lower portion of the body.

Claustrum   Dico Tools
Latin clausum = closed, hence a barrier.

Clavicle   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin clavis = key - old Roman key was S-shaped.

CLEARANCE   Dico Tools
Removal or elimination, e.g., of a virus or drug from the body.

Cleido   Dico Tools
Greek, cleis = key, a combining form denoting relationship to the clavicle.

CLINICAL   Dico Tools
Relating to the treatment of patients. A clinical observation is based on a person's observed condition and symptoms, as distinguished from laboratory findings.

An organized procedure for determining the effectiveness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to volunteers under controlled conditions. In many clinical trials, new treatments are compared against older standard treatments or an inactive substance (placebo).

Clinoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek kline = bed, eidos = shape or form, hence, like a bed-post.

Clivus   Dico Tools
Latin = slope (cf. declivity).

Cloaca   Dico Tools
Latin = a drain, sewer; common opening for intestinal, urinary and genital tracts in lower vertebrates, it is a transitory structure in human embryological development.

Clostridium Difficile   Dico Tools
Bacteria that are normally present in the large intestine, can cause a serious illness called pseudo-membranous colitis in people taking antibiotics, and can sometimes trigger reactive arthritis.

CLOT   Dico Tools
A sticky mass of coagulated blood cells and platelets.

A protein (e.g., fibrinogen, prothrombin, Factor VIII) that is necessary for normal blood clotting. Several clotting factors are synthesized by the liver and production may be impaired when the liver is damaged. People with clotting factor deficiencies may experience prolonged bleeding and easy bruising.

CLT   Dico Tools
Certified Laboratory Technician

CLT-LANA   Dico Tools
Certified Lymphedema Therapist-Lymphology Association of North America.

CM   Dico Tools
Certified Midwife by The American College of Nurse-Midwives Certification Council (ACC)

CMA   Dico Tools
Certified Medical Assistant (Non-licensed) May perform clerical, administrative, and basic clinical support to doctors. Credentialed after completing a medical assistant program

CMSRN   Dico Tools
Certified Medical-Surgical Registered Nurse by the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses (AMSN)

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CNM   Dico Tools
Certified Nurse Midwife by The American College of Nurse-Midwives Certification Council (ACC)

CNMT   Dico Tools
Certified Nuclear Medicine Technologist by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB)

CNN   Dico Tools
Certified Nephrology Nurse by the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC)

CNOR   Dico Tools
Not a credential, but signifies that an individual has met all the education, examination, or experience requirements necessary to be certified in operating room nursing by the Certification Board Perioperative Nursing of the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN)

CNS   Dico Tools
Clinical Nurse Specialist (a job title)

COBALAMIN   Dico Tools
See vitamin B12.

Coccyx   Dico Tools
Greek kokkyx = cuckoo, whose bill the coccyx resembles.

Cochlea   Dico Tools
Latin = snail, hence the spiral cochlea, adjective - cochlear.

COCN   Dico Tools
Certified Continence Care Nurse by the Wound Ostomy Continence Nursing Certification Board (WOCNCB)

Coeliac   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek koilia = belly.

COEMZYME Q10   Dico Tools
An antioxidant agent that is necessary for the proper activity of certain enzymes.

Without septa.

Coeruleus   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = blue, hence, locus coeruleus, a group of nerve cells in the rostral pons coloured blue or black by melanin.

COFACTOR   Dico Tools
A factor that influences the progression of a disease or the action of a disease-causing agent.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy   Dico Tools
A form of therapy that aims to correct ingrained patterns of negative thoughts and behaviors (see Anxiety, Depression).

Reduction in mental functioning and ability to carry out tasks that require thinking, planning, and memory.

COHORT   Dico Tools
A group of individuals in a study who share a demographic, clinical, or other characteristic.

Concurrent infection with more than one disease-causing organism (e.g., HCV and HIV).

Coli   Dico Tools
Latin = of the colon.

Collagen   Dico Tools
The main structural protein in connective tissue (see Arthritis).

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Collagen And Connective Tissue   Dico Tools
A set of fibrous proteins and supporting framework that form the main building blocks of the body, including the internal organs, ligaments, tendon, cartilage, bone, and skin.

Collateral   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin con = together, and latus = side, hence, alongside.

Colli   Dico Tools
Genetive (possessive case) of collum, Latin = neck

Colliculus   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin collis = hill.

Collum   Dico Tools
Latin = neck (cf. collar).

Colon   Dico Tools
Greek kolon = large intestine.

Growth of an organism in a host without tissue invasion.

Colonoscopy   Dico Tools
Examination of the interior of the colon using a flexible viewing instrument (see Digestive Health).

A cytokine responsible for regulating the production of white blood cells. Types include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).

COLOSTRUM   Dico Tools
Breast fluid produced during the first few days after a baby's birth (prior to milk production) that contains proteins, immunoglobulins, and immune cells.

COLUMELLA   Dico Tools
A sterile invagination of a sporangium, as in the Zygomycetes.

Columna   Dico Tools
Latin = column, or pillar.

COMA   Dico Tools
A state of deep unconsciousness; a vegetative state.

Use of two or more drugs together to improve the effectiveness of treatment. In HCV treatment, the term most often refers to the use of interferon plus ribavirin. Contrast with monotherapy.

Combined Hormone Therapy   Dico Tools
Estrogen combined with progestogen (see Menopause).

Combined Hyperlipidemia   Dico Tools
A condition in which LDL and triglyceride levels are very high. (see High Cholesterol).

Comitans   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = accompanying.

A symbiotic relationship in which there is no damage to either participant.

Commissure   Dico Tools
Latin con = together, and missum = sent, hence fibres which cross between symmetrical parts.

Communicans   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = communicating.

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Compact Bone   Dico Tools
Very dense bone tissue that forms the outer shell of bones and composes a large part of the long bones of the arms, legs, and ribs. Also called cortical bone or lamellar bone (see Osteoporosis).

An FDA classification that allows individuals to use experimental drugs prior to their approval for a serious illness for which there is no other suitable treatment.

See cirrhosis.

A serologic procedure to determine antibody to fungus infections. Cross reacts with other systemic fungi but is a quantitative test.

An alternative therapy that is used in conjunction with a standard Western treatment.

An inventory of the cellular components of the blood, including red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and platelet count.

Compression   Dico Tools
In lymphedema treatment the use of garments and wraps to support the lymphatic system in the affected area, maintain progress made during manual lymph drainage, and to control additional swelling.

Compression Aids   Dico Tools
A variety of custom-fitted garments or pads that consist of a layer of foam padding stitched between covers of a specialized fabric in a channel-like pattern to stimulate and guide the flow of lymph.

Compression Fracture   Dico Tools
The collapse of a bone, most often a vertebra (see Osteoporosis).

Compression Garments   Dico Tools
Specialized elastic knit two-way stretch sleeves or stockings that can be worn under clothing throughout the day, including while exercising.

A method of viewing the soft tissues of the body using X-rays.

Concha   Dico Tools
Latin = shell.

CONDOM   Dico Tools
A sheath made of latex, polyurethane, or animal membrane that is worn over the penis to hold ejaculated semen. Condoms are used to prevent pregnancy; latex and polyurethane condoms also protect against HIV, HCV and certain other sexually transmitted diseases. The "female condom" (Reality) is an internal pouch worn inside the vagina or anus.

Condyle   Dico Tools
Greek kondylos = knuckle.

A statistical measure of the likelihood that an experimental result is "true" and not the result of chance alone.

Confluens   Dico Tools
Latin con = together, and fluens = flowing, hence the meeting of more than one stream.

Present from birth.

Congenital Lymphedema   Dico Tools
The form of primary lymphedema that is present from birth; also known as Milroys disease or Nonne-Milroy disease.

Heart dysfunction that leads to a build-up of fluids in the body.

The cell that gives rise to a conidium.

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A specialized hypha that gives rise to, or bears a conidium.

CONIDIUM (pl. Conidia)   Dico Tools
A reproductive propagule produced in the absence of nuclear recombination, thus representing anamorphic or asexual reproduction.

Conjugated Equine Estrogens   Dico Tools
Estrogen compounds produced from the urine of pregnant mares. Brand name is Premarin (see Menopause).

Conjunctiva   Dico Tools
Latin con = with, and junctus = joined (cf. junction), hence the continuous bulbar and palpebral lining membrane.

Inflammation of the conjunctiva, a membrane that cover the eye and lines the eyelid.

Connective Tissue   Dico Tools
The material that holds various body structures together; cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels are composed entirely of connective tissue (see Arthritis).

Conoid   Dico Tools
Greek konoeides = resembling a cone, cone shape

A preparation that contains a variety of different types of interferon.

Constrictor   Dico Tools
Latin con = together, and strictum = drawn tight, hence, producing narrowing.

Contact Dermatitis   Dico Tools
A reaction that occurs when the skin comes in direct contact with an allergen or an irritant (see Allergies).

Continuous Combined Hormone Therapy   Dico Tools
A dose of estrogen and a dose of progestogen taken daily (see Menopause).

Contour   Dico Tools
Greek tornos = lathe, hence a line which turns - an outline.

Birth control; a device or method that prevents conception (fertilization), implantation, or successful gestation.

Contracture   Dico Tools
Arthritis or prolonged immobility can result in the involved joint becoming less freely moveable. Associated with shortening and wasting of muscles.

Any circumstance or condition that makes a drug or other method of treatment inadvisable in a particular case.

Contralateral   Dico Tools
On the opposite side; The unaffected area of lymph drainage.

CONTROL ARM   Dico Tools
A comparison group in a clinical trial that is used to verify an experimental result. A control group is typically given an older standard treatment or a placebo rather than the new experimental treatment under study.

Control Group   Dico Tools
In clinical studies the, which is given either the standard treatment for a medical condition under study or an inactive substance (called a placebo), is compared with a group given an experimental treatment to find its efficacy for the disease under study.

A clinical trial in which a group receiving an experimental treatment is compared to a control group that is given a standard treatment or a placebo.

Controllers   Dico Tools
Asthma medications taken on a daily basis to prevent or control asthma symptoms (see Asthma).

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Conus   Dico Tools
Latin = cone, conus medullaris - the lower end of the spinal cord.

COPEGUS   Dico Tools
Roches brand of ribavirin. see RIBAVIRIN.

Coping   Dico Tools
The psychological processes following any stressful situation.

Coracoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek korax = a crow, and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a crow's beak.

CORE   Dico Tools
The inner part of a virus that contains its genetic material.

Core Needle Biopsy   Dico Tools
Use of a hollow needle to extract a sample of a lump or other suspicious tissue for examination (see Breast Cancer).

Cornea   Dico Tools
Latin cornu = horn, hence, the dense tissue forming the front of the eyeball.

Corniculate   Dico Tools
Latin = shaped like a small horn.

Cornu   Dico Tools
Latin = horn.

Corona   Dico Tools
Latin = crown. adjective - coronary or coronal; hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (cf. coronal suture).

Coronal   Dico Tools
Latin corona = crown; hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (cf. coronal suture).

Coronary   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = crown, hence, encircling like a crown.

Coronary Arteries   Dico Tools
The small blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle (see Cardiovascular Health).

Coronary Arteriography   Dico Tools
An x-ray procedure that shows blood moving through the blood vessels and heart. It involves the injection into the bloodstream of a fluid (contrast agent) that can be seen on the x-ray. Also known as coronary angiography; the resulting image is called an angiogram (see Cardiovascular Health).

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery   Dico Tools
Surgery that bypasses a blocked coronary artery by grafting a blood vessel taken from another part of the body to restore blood flow to the heart muscle (see Cardiovascular Health).

Damage to or blockage of the arteries that provide blood to the heart muscle.

Coronoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek korone = a crown, eidos = shape or form, hence, shaped like a crown.

Corpus   Dico Tools
Latin = body, plural - corpora.

Corpuscle   Dico Tools
Latin = a little body.

Corrugator   Dico Tools
Latin con = together, and ruga = wrinkle, hence a muscle that produces wrinkles.

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Cortex   Dico Tools
Latin = bark, adjective, cortical.

A steroid hormone (e.g., prednisone, cortisone) produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland or manufactured synthetically. Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, and are used to treat a variety of conditions.

Corticosteroids   Dico Tools
A group of related compounds which, like cortisone, reduce inflammation and irritation caused by many disease processes, including many forms of arthritis, and skin and bowel diseases.

Corticotropin-releasing Factor (CRF)   Dico Tools
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that helps rouse the body to defend against a physical or emotional threat (see Anxiety).

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH)   Dico Tools
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that helps rouse the body when a physical or emotional threat appears (see Depression).

Cortisol   Dico Tools
A glucocorticoid, or steroid hormone, released by the adrenal glands and necessary to many basic body functions. This stress hormone is also involved in triggering the "fight or flight" response and similar responses (see Anxiety, Depression).

Cortisone   Dico Tools
A natural hormone made by the adrenal gland. Sometimes wrongly used as a synonym for corticosteroids.

Costa   Dico Tools
Latin = rib. adjective - costal.

COTA   Dico Tools
Certified Occupational Therapy Assistant by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy, Inc. (NBCOT), after earning an Associate's degree in occupational therapy

Coxa   Dico Tools
Latin = hip, hence os coxae = the hip bone.

CPAN   Dico Tools
Certified Post Anesthesia Nurse by the American Board of Perianesthesia Nursing Certification, Inc. (ABPANC)

CPFT   Dico Tools
Certified Pulmonary Function Technologist by the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC)

CPN   Dico Tools
Certified Pediatric Nurse by the National Certification Board of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and Nurses, Inc. (NCBPNP/N)

CPNP   Dico Tools
Certified Pediatric Nurse Practitioner by the National Certification Board of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and Nurses, Inc. (NCBPNP/N)

CPON   Dico Tools
Certified Pediatric Oncology Nurse by the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation (ONCC)

CPT Codes   Dico Tools
Abbreviation for Current Procedural Terminology.

Cranium   Dico Tools
Greek kranion = skull. (In anthropology = skull minus mandible) adjective - cranial.

Creatine Kinase   Dico Tools
An enzyme produced by skeletal tissue and heart muscle. One form, creatine kinase-MB, is produced only by the heart; it's usually elevated only when there has been damage to heart tissue for example, because of a heart attack. A blood test for this enzyme can aid in the diagnosis of heart attack (see Cardiovascular Health).

A metabolic byproduct produced by muscles; high levels in the blood may indicate kidney dysfunction.

Cremaster   Dico Tools
Greek = suspender, hence the muscle which suspends the testis.

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A type of scleroderma characterized by a variety of different symptoms (primarily calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia).

Cribriform   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cribrum = sieve, hence, sieve-like.

Cricoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek krikos = ring, and eidos = shape or form, hence, ring-like, i.e. circular.

Crista   Dico Tools
Latin = crest, crista galli = the (median) crest of a cock.

CRN   Dico Tools
Credential for nurses who have taken the Certification Examination for Radiologic Nursing by the American Radiological Nurses Association (ARNA)

CRNA   Dico Tools
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA)

CRNFA   Dico Tools
Certified Registered Nurse First Assistant (an operating certification) by the Certification Board Perioperative Nursing of the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN)

CRNI   Dico Tools
Certified Registered Nurse Infusion by the Infusion Nurses Certification Corporation of the Infusion Nurses Society (INS)

Crohn's Disease   Dico Tools
A chronic inflammatory bowel disease (also called ileitis or regional enteritis), that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, though it usually involves the lower small intestine, (the ileum) and the adjacent part of the colon.

CRRN   Dico Tools
Certified Rehabilitation Registered Nurse by the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN)

CRRN-A   Dico Tools
Certified Rehabilitation Registered Nurse - Advanced by the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN)

CRT   Dico Tools
Certified Respiratory Therapist by the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC)

CRTT   Dico Tools
Certified Respiratory Therapy Technician (job title) Or used for

Cruciate   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin crux = cross, hence, crossed like the letter X.

Crus   Dico Tools
Latin = leg, plural - crura.

An abnormal immune protein.

A condition in which cryoglobulins form in the blood. When the blood is cooled, the cryoglobulins clump together, causing the blood to thicken and restricting blood flow. Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia occurs in many people with HCV, although most do not experience symptoms.

Removal of damaged or cancerous tissue by freezing.

CT SCAN   Dico Tools
See computed tomography scan.

Cubital   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cubitus = elbow.

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Cuboid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek kuboides = cube-shaped.

CUCNS   Dico Tools
Certified Urologic Clinical Nurse Specialist by the Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates (SUNA)

Culmen   Dico Tools
Latin = summit (cf. culminate).

CULTURE   Dico Tools
A method of growing a microorganism in a laboratory.

Cuneate   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = a wedge.

Cuneiform   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin cuneus = wedge, hence wedge-shaped.

Cuneus   Dico Tools
Latin = a wedge, adjective - cuneate.

Oral sex on a woman; contact between the mouth and the vulva or vagina.

CUNP   Dico Tools
Certified Urologic Nurse Practitioner by the Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates (SUNA)

Cupola   Dico Tools
Latin = little dome.

Cupula   Dico Tools
Latin = little dome.

CURN   Dico Tools
Certified Urologic Registered Nurse by the Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates (SUNA)

Current Procedural Terminology   Dico Tools
A system of treatment codes developed and published by the American Medical Association

Cusp   Dico Tools
Latin cuspis = a pointed elevation.

Cutaneous   Dico Tools
Pertaining to the skin.

CWCN   Dico Tools
Certified Wound Care Nurse by the Wound Ostomy Continence Nursing Certification Board (WOCNCB)

CWOCN   Dico Tools
Certified Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse by the Wound Ostomy Continence Nursing Certification Board (WOCNCB)

Cyclic Hormone Therapy   Dico Tools
Continuous treatment with estrogen combined with a progestogen for 1014 days of the month (see Menopause).

See Actidione.

Cyst   Dico Tools
Greek kystis = bladder, adjective - cystic.

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CYSTEINE   Dico Tools
An amino acid; one of the building blocks of glutathione.

CYTOKINE   Dico Tools
A chemical messenger (e.g., interferon, interleukin, tumor necrosis factor) produced by white blood cells. Cytokines coordinate several aspects of the immune response, including stimulating antibody production and activating killer T-cells.

Cytokines   Dico Tools
"messenger" molecules that allow cells to communicate and alter one another's function (see Arthritis).

CYTOPENIA   Dico Tools
Low levels of blood cells.

CYTOPLASM   Dico Tools
The material that makes up the interior of a cell.

An agent that protects cells from damage.

A type of CD8 white blood cell that targets and kills cells infected with viruses, bacteria, parasites, and other microorganisms.

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