Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

V   Dico Tools
V (Urea distribution volume) is used for dose calculations (another term for TBW)

VACCINE   Dico Tools
A preparation administered to stimulate an immune response to protect a person from illness. A vaccine typically includes a small amount of a killed or inactivated microorganism, or genetically engineered pieces. A therapeutic (treatment) vaccine is given after infection and is intended to reduce or stop disease progression. A preventive (prophylactic) vaccine is intended to prevent initial infection.

Vagina   Dico Tools
Latin = sheath; hence, invagination is the acquisition of a sheath by pushing inwards into a membrane, and evagination is similar but produced by pushing outwards.

Vagus   Dico Tools
Latin = wandering; hence, cranial nerve X, which leaves the head and neck to traverse the thorax and upper part of the abdomen.

Valgus   Dico Tools
Latin = knock-kneed.

Vallate   Dico Tools
Latin vallatus = walled; hence, the large papillae on the tongue which are depressed below the surface and are surrounded by a groove which is itself bounded by a wall.

Vallecula   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin vallis = a fossa.

An HCV polymerase inhibitor under study to treat chronic HCV.

Valve   Dico Tools
Latin valva = the segment of a folding-door.

Valvula   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin valva.

Bleeding from stretched and weakened blood vessels, especially in the esophagus or stomach.

VARICES (adjective VARICEAL)   Dico Tools
An abnormally dilated or swollen vein, artery, or lymph vessel resulting from portal hypertension.

Varicocoele   Dico Tools
Latin varix = vein and Greek kele = tumour, hernia, hence a varicose condition of the veins of the pampiniform plexus.

Varus   Dico Tools
Latin = bow-legged.

Vas   Dico Tools
Latin = vessel (plural = vasa).

Vascular   Dico Tools
Latin vasculum, diminutive of vas; hence, pertaining to blood vessels.

Blood vessel inflammation.

Vasoconstrictors   Dico Tools
Substances that constrict blood vessels (see Hypertension).

Vasodilators   Dico Tools
Substances that widen blood vessels (see Hypertension).

Vastus   Dico Tools
Latin = great, vast, extensive.

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VEIN   Dico Tools
Any of the membranous tubes that form a branching system and carry blood to the heart from other organs.

Velum   Dico Tools
Latin = curtain; veli = of a curtain.

Venous Insufficiency   Dico Tools
When valves in the veins of the legs do not function properly, this impaired function causes insufficiency in the return of blood from the legs to the heart.

Venous Stasis   Dico Tools
Congestion and slowing of circulation in veins of the legs and feet that is usually due to venous insufficiency.

Venter   Dico Tools
Latin = belly; hence, ventral, pertaining to the belly side.

Ventricle   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin venter = a small belly.

Vermiform   Dico Tools
Latin vermis = a worm, and forma = shape; hence, worm-shaped.

Vermis   Dico Tools
Latin = worm; hence, the segmented median part of the cerebellum.

Vertebra   Dico Tools
Latin verto = I turn; hence, one of the movable bones of the backbone which seems to be shaped for rotation.

Vertex   Dico Tools
Latin = summit; hence the highest point on the skull.

Vertical   Dico Tools
Perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizontal.

Transmission from a mother to a fetus or newborn. Vertical transmission may occur in utero (in the womb), intrapartum (during birth), or postpartum (e.g., via breast-feeding).

Very Low-calorie Diet   Dico Tools
A weight-loss diet that allows 800 or fewer calories per day (usually followed under medical supervision) (See Weight Management).

Very-low-density Lipoprotein (VLDL)   Dico Tools
Transports triglyceride manufactured in the liver to fat tissue in the body; eventually becomes low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after the triglyceride has been removed (see High Cholesterol).

Vesica   Dico Tools
Latin = bladder, adjective - vesical.

VESICLE   Dico Tools
A swollen or bladder-like cell.

Vesicula   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin vesica = bladder; seminal vesicle.

Vestibule   Dico Tools
Latin vestibulum = entrance hall.

Vibrissa   Dico Tools
Latin vibrare = to vibrate; hence, the hairs in the nasal vestibule which vibrate in the current of air.

Villus   Dico Tools
Latin a hair; hence, a vascular, hair-like process, usually projecting from a mucous surface.

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Vincula   Dico Tools
Latin = fetters (singular - vinculum); hence, the delicate vascular synovial bands passing to a tendon in the digits.

A type of hepatitis caused by a virus. The most common types are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

VIRAL LOAD   Dico Tools
The amount of virus in the blood or other tissues, usually expressed in terms of copies of viral genetic material (RNA or DNA). The presence of genetic material indicates that a virus is actively replicating.

An assay that measures viral load; the bDNA, PCR, and TMA tests are most often used to determine HCV viral load.

See virological response.

A prodrug of ribavirin under study to treat chronic HCV.

VIREMIA (adjective VIREMIC)   Dico Tools
The presence of a virus in the blood.

VIRION   Dico Tools
A complete virus particle.

Failure of a treatment to suppress a virus.

Reduction in viral replication in response to treatment. In HCV, a complete virological response means that a person's HCV RNA becomes undetectable with treatment.

VIROLOGY   Dico Tools
The study of viruses and diseases caused by viruses.

VIRULENCE   Dico Tools
Degree of pathogenicity; the disease producing capacity of an organism.

VIRULENCE (adjective VIRULENT)   Dico Tools
Aggressiveness, ability to cause disease.

VIRUS   Dico Tools
A microscopic infectious organism that is unable to grow or replicate outside of a host cell. Viruses integrate their genetic material (DNA or RNA) into a host cell and take over the cell's biological mechanisms to reproduce new virus particles.

Visceral   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin viscus = an internal organ.

Viscus   Dico Tools
Latin = an internal organ, plural - viscera, adjective - visceral.

Vital   Dico Tools
Latin vita = life.

VITAMIN   Dico Tools
An organic substance that acts as a coenzyme or regulator of metabolic processes; vitamins are crucial for many vital bodily functions.

VITAMIN A   Dico Tools
A fat-soluble vitamin synthesized from beta carotene within the body that has antioxidant properties and is important for proper immune system functioning. Excess vitamin A can be toxic to the liver.

VITAMIN B   Dico Tools
A complex of several important vitamins including B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and B12 (cobalamin).

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A vitamin needed for red blood cell production and DNA synthesis and repair. Vitamin B12 deficiency may result in anemia, neurological dysfunction, and changes in mental status.

An antioxidant vitamin that protects cells from oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may result in poor healing, easy bruising and anemia.

VITAMIN D   Dico Tools
A fat-soluble vitamin that is important for mineral metabolism and which may play a role in immune function. Excess vitamin D can be toxic to the liver.

An antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes from oxidative damage.

VITAMIN K   Dico Tools
A substance important for blood clotting.

VITAMIN P   Dico Tools
See bioflavinoid.

Vitelline   Dico Tools
Latin vitellus = yolk.

VITILIGO   Dico Tools
A condition in which there is loss of pigmentation usually around the mouth, eyes, nose, elbows, knees and wrists.

Vitreous   Dico Tools
Latin vitreus = glassy.

Vocal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin vox = voice.

Vomer   Dico Tools
Latin = plough-share; hence, the bone of the nasal septum which is split in two at its upper edge.

Vorticosae   Dico Tools
Latin vortex = whirl; hence the whirl-like arrangement of the 4 venae vorticosae leaving the eyeball.

Vulva   Dico Tools
Latin = the external female genitalia.

VX-950   Dico Tools
An HCV protease inhibitor under study to treat chronic HCV.

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