Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

The probability of achieving a sustained virological response early in treatment based on the decline in HCV RNA (viral load). The generally accepted timeframe is 12 weeks after starting treatment.

Covered with delicate spines.

ECOLOGY   Dico Tools
The science of organisms as affected by the factors of their environment.

Ectoderm   Dico Tools
Greek ektos = outside, and derm = skin, hence, the outermost germ layer of the embryo.

Arthroconidia formed on the outside and inside of a hair shaft.

Ectopic   Dico Tools
Greek ek = out, and topos = place, hence out of place.

ECTOTHRIX   Dico Tools
Forming a sheath of arthroconidia on the outside of a hair shaft. The cuticle of the hair is destroyed.

ECW   Dico Tools
ECW (Extracellular Water) consists of the interstitial water, the plasma water and the transcellular water. It represents the amount of water in the body which is not inside cells. ECW is calculated by BCM

ECZEMA   Dico Tools
A type of skin rash.

Edema   Dico Tools
Swelling; abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular spaces of the tissues.

The absence of teeth.

Edge   Dico Tools
Border or margin of a surface.

Efferent   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin ex = out, and ferens = carrying, hence, conducting from.

Efferent Lymphatic Vessels   Dico Tools
Vessels that carry lymph out of the node to continue its return to the circulatory system.

EFFICACY   Dico Tools
Effectiveness; the ability to achieve a desired result.

Ejaculatory   Dico Tools
Latin ex = out, and jacere = to throw, hence throwing out.

Elastin   Dico Tools
Stretchable protein found in connective tissue (see Arthritis).

Elbow   Dico Tools
The junction between arm and forearm.

Electrocardiogram (EKG)   Dico Tools
A graph recording the electrical activity responsible for the contraction and relaxation of the heart (see Cardiovascular Health).

Elephantiasis   Dico Tools
A term used to describe the extensive swelling associated with stage 3 lymphedema. Another name for lymphatic filariasis, which is the form of lymphedema caused by thread-like parasitic worms.

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Elevate   Dico Tools
Latin elevatus = raised up, hence, to raise up, and elevation = a raised part.

Elimination Diet   Dico Tools
Requirement that certain foods should not be eaten.

Elimination Diets   Dico Tools
A way of diagnosing food allergies in which suspected foods are eliminated from the diet one at a time to see if the allergic condition improves. Also called avoidance diets (see Allergies).

See enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Emboliformis   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek embolus = wedge or blocking matter.

EMBOLISM   Dico Tools
A blood clot that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel, causing a blockage.

Embryo   Dico Tools
Greek en = within, and bryein = to swell or grow, hence the early stage of intrauterine development.

Eminence   Dico Tools
Latin eminens = projecting, hence, a projection (usually smooth).

Emissary   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin e = out, and emissum = sent out; emissary vein, one connecting intra- with extra-cranial venous channels.

Encephalon   Dico Tools
Greek en = within, and kephalos = head, hence, the brain.

Disease of the brain. See also hepatic encephalopathy.

Undetectable HCV RNA at the completion of treatment (typically Week 24 for genotypes 2 or 3; Week 48 for genotype 1).

Kidney failure.

ENDEMIC   Dico Tools
A disease which occurs in a limited geographic area.

Endocardium   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and kardia = heart, hence, the endothelial lining of the chambers of the heart.

Endocranium   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and kranion = skull, hence, the outer endostial layer of the dura mater.

ENDOCRINE   Dico Tools
Endocrine glands are ductless glands that regulate bodily functions via hormones secreted into the bloodstream. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads (ovaries and testes).

Endoderm   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and derm = skin, hence, the germ layer of the embryo that gives rise to epithelium of the astrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

From within.

Endolymph   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and Latin lympha = clear water, hence the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear.

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Endometrium   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and metra = uterus, hence the mucosal lining of the uterine cavity.

ENDOSCOPY   Dico Tools
A method of examining the interior of a body cavity or hollow organ (e.g., esophagus, stomach) using an endoscope, a narrow, flexible fiber optic instrument that conducts light.

ENDOSPORE   Dico Tools
A spore formed within some other unit, such as in a spherule. (Typical of Coccidioidomycosis).

Endothelium   Dico Tools
Greek endo = within, and thele = the nipple; the squamous epithelium lining the heart and blood vessels.

ENDOTHELIUM (adjective ENDOTHELIAL)   Dico Tools
A layer of cells that lines blood and lymph vessels, the heart, and various body cavities.

ENDOTHRIX   Dico Tools
Arthroconidia formed inside a hair shaft. The cuticle of the hair remains intact.

ENDPOINT   Dico Tools
A marker of disease progression. Endpoints may be clinical manifestations (e.g., disease symptoms, death) or laboratory results such as ALT level or viral load (sometimes called surrogate markers).

Factors used to determine whether a person is eligible to participate in a clinical trial. See also inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria.

ENTECAVIR (Brand Name BARACLUDE)   Dico Tools
A nucleoside analogue produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb that is used to treat chronic hepatitis B. It is recommended as a first line of treatment except in people who have developed lamivudine resistance.

ENTERIC   Dico Tools
Having to do with the intestines.

See hepatitis E.

Enteritis   Dico Tools
An inflammation (irritation) of the small intestine.

Enthesis   Dico Tools
Site of attachment of ligament or tendon to bone.

Enthesitis   Dico Tools
Inflammation of an enthesis.

Enthesopathy   Dico Tools
An all-inclusive term that covers all abnormalities of an enthesis (e.g. enthesitis is an inflammatory type of enthesopathy).

ENVELOPE   Dico Tools
The outer coat of a virus.

ENZYME   Dico Tools
A protein that induces or accelerates a chemical reaction.

A laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood.

A laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood.

Eosinophils   Dico Tools
White blood cells that play an important role in allergic reactions (see Allergies).

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EOT   Dico Tools
See end-of-treatment response.

Ependyma   Dico Tools
Greek = an upper garment. It may refer to a vest or singlet, i.e. an under-garment, hence, the lining membrane of the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.

Epicanthus   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and kanthos = corner, hence, the fold of skin over the inner angle of the upper eyelid, a normal characteristic in certain races, and a congenital anomaly in others.

Epicardium   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and kardia = heart, hence, the visceral layer of serous pericardium which covers the heart.

Epicondyle   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and kondylos = knuckle, hence a prominence on a condyle of the humerus or femur.

Epicondylitis   Dico Tools
Enthesopathy at bony prominence (epicondyle) of the elbow; may occur on the medial (inner) side (golfer's elbow) or the lateral (outer) side (tennis elbow).

Epicranial   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek epi = upon, and kranion = skull, hence, the epicranial aponeurosis (galea) connecting frontalis to occipitalis muscles.

The study of the frequency, distribution, and behavior of a disease within a population.

Epidermis   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and derm = skin, hence, the most external layer of the skin.

Epididymis   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and didymos = testis, hence, the organ perched posterosuperior to the testis.

Epidural   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek epi = upon, Latin dura = tough, hence, external to dura mater.

Epigastrium   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and gaster = belly, hence, the upper median zone of the abdomen.

Epiglottis   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and glottis = larynx, hence the uppermost part of the larynx.

Epimysium   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and mys = muscle, hence the connective tissue surrounding an entire muscle.

Epinephrine   Dico Tools
A chemical released by the sympathetic nervous system that constricts blood vessels and increases heart rate; also called adrenaline (see Hypertension).

EpiPen   Dico Tools
A device to administer epinephrine very quickly to stave off anaphylaxis in the event of a severe allergic reaction (see Allergies).

Epiphysis   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and physis = growth, hence, the end of a long bone beyond the cartilaginous growth disc, adjective - epiphysial.

Epiploic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek epiploon = a net, which the greater omentum resembles with fat entangled in it.

Epithelium   Dico Tools
Greek epi = upon, and thele = the nipple; the cell layer lining the internal and external surfaces of the body.

EPIVIR   Dico Tools
See lamivudine.

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EPO   Dico Tools
See erythropoietin.

EPOGEN   Dico Tools
See erythropoietin.

The complete elimination of an organism from the body.

Erector   Dico Tools
Latin erectus = straight or upright.

Erigentes   Dico Tools
Plural, Latin erigere = to erect.

A mature red blood cell. Erythrocytes transport oxygen to the tissues of the body.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)   Dico Tools
A blood test commonly used to detect or grade inflammation.

A hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Genetically engineered EPO (brand names Procrit, Epogen) is used to treat certain types of anemia.

Esophagus   Dico Tools
The tube-like passage through which swallowed food travels from the mouth to the stomach.

ESOPHAGUS (adjective ESOPHAGEAL)   Dico Tools
The swallowing tube; the portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the stomach.

ESRD   Dico Tools
See end-stage renal disease.

Essential Hypertension   Dico Tools
High blood pressure for which there is no known underlying cause; also called primary hypertension (see Hypertension).

See cryoglobulinemia.

Estradiol   Dico Tools
Produced by the ovaries, the dominant form of estrogen in premenopausal women (see Menopause).

ESTROGEN   Dico Tools
The primary female sex hormone or a synthetic analog. Estrogens stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulate the reproductive cycle in women.

Estrogen Receptor   Dico Tools
A site on the surface of some cells to which estrogen molecules attach (see Breast Cancer).

Ethmoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek ethmos = sieve, and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a sieve; an unpaired skull bone.

ETIOLOGY   Dico Tools
The cause of a disease.

Eversion   Dico Tools
Latin e = out, and versum = turned, hence turned outwards.

To worsen or make more severe.

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Conditions that disqualify someone from participating in a clinical trial. Contrast with inclusion criteria.

EXOGENOUS   Dico Tools
From without. The source of most mycotic infections is exogenous, i.e. outside the body (the environment).

Exophthalmos   Dico Tools
Greek exo = out, and ophthalmos = eye, hence, prominent eyeball.

The group of participants in a clinical trial that receives the new experimental treatment under study.

A new drug that is being tested as a treatment for a specific condition and has not yet been approved by the FDA for use.

Extend   Dico Tools
Latin extendo = extend or stretch out, hence, extension = extended or straightened; the position opposite to the flexed or bent.

External   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin externus = outward, hence, further from the inside.

Outside the liver.

Extraperitoneal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin extra = outside, Greek peri = around and teinein = stretched, hence outside the serous membrane stretched around the inside of the abdominal wall and around the viscera.

Extrapyramidal   Dico Tools
Latin extra = outside, and pyramidal (q.v.), hence descending nerve tracts that do not traverse the pyramids of the medulla.

Extrinsic   Dico Tools
Latin extrinsecus = from without, hence (usually) a muscle (usually) originating outside the part on which it acts.

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